Topic 5: Changing family patterns

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  • Created by: zobia 08
  • Created on: 13-04-18 22:13
What does stigma refer to?
Stigma refers to the negative label, social disapproval or shame attached to a person, action or relationship.
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Juliet Mitchell and Jack Goody (1997)
Note that an important change since the 1960s has been the rapid decline in the stigma attached to divorce.
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What does secularisation refer to?
Secularisation refers to the decline in the influence of religion in society.
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What does Ronald Fletcher (1966) argue?
He argues that the higher expectations people place on marriage today are a major cause of rising divorce rates.
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What do feminists argue?
They argue that married women today bear a dual burden: they are required to take on paid work in addition to performing domestic labour.
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What does Arlie Hochschild (1997) argue?
She argues that for many women, the home compares unfavourably with work.
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Wendy Sigle -Rushton (ESRC, 2007)
According to Wendy Sigle -Rushton (ESRC, 2007) mothers who have a dual burden of paid work and domestic work are more likely to divorce than non working mothers in marriages with a traditional division of labour.
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Cooke and Gash (2010)
Found no evidence that working women are more likely to divorce. They argue that this is because working has now become the accepted norm for married women.
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Jessie Bernard (1976)
Observe that many women feel a growing dissatisfaction with patriarchal marriage. She sees the rising divorce rate and the fact that most petitions come from women as evidence of their growing acceptance of feminist ideas.
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What do Ulrich Beck (1992) and Anthony Giddens (1992) argue?
They argue that in modern society traditional norms such as the duty to remain with the same partner for life lose their hold over individuals.
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What is the pure relationship according to Giddens?
One that exists solely to satisfy each partner's needs and not out of a sense of duty, tradition or for the sake of the children.
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How do the New Right see a high divorce rates?
They see a high divorce rate as undesirable because it undermines marriage and the traditional nuclear family, which they regard as vital to social stability.
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How do feminists see a high divorce rate?
They see a high divorce rate as desirable because it shows that women are breaking free from the oppression of the patriarchal nuclear family.
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How do postmodernists and the individualsiation thesis see high divorce rates?
They see a high divorce rate as showing that individuals now have the freedom to choose to end a relationship when it no longer meets their needs.
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What do functionalists argue about a high divorce rate?
Functionalists argue that a high divorce rate is not necessarily a threat to marriage as a social institution.
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What do internationalists aim to understand?
Internationalists aim to understand what divorce means to the individual.
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What does David Morgan (1996) argue?
David Morgan (1996) argues that we cannot generalise about the meaning of divorce because every individuals interpretation of it is different.
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What does the personal life perspective accept?
They accept that divorce can cause problems, such as financial difficulties and lack of daily contact between children and non-resident parents.
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What does Carol Smart (2011) argue?
She argues that divorce has become 'normalised' and that family life can adapt to it without disintegrating.
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What is cohabitation?
Cohabitation involves an unmarried couple in a sexual relationship living together.
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What does Robert Chester argue?
He argues that for most people, cohabitation is part of the process of getting married.
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Ernestina Coast (2006)
According to Ernestina 75% of cohabiting couples say that they expect to marry each other.
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What does Andre Bejin (1985) argue?
He argues that cohabitation among some young people represents a conscious attempt to create a more personally negotiated and equal relationship than conventional patriarchal marriage.
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Shelton and John (1993)
Shelton and John (1993) found that women who cohabit do less housework than their married counterparts.
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Stonewall (2012)
Stonewall (2012), the campaign for lesbian, gay and bisexual rights, estimates that about 5 to 7% of the adult population today have same sex relationships.
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What does Jeffrey Weeks (1999) argue?
He argues that increased social acceptance may explain a trend towards same-sex cohabitation and stable relationships that resemble those found among heterosexuals.
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Kath Weston (1992)
Kath Weston describes same-sex cohabitation as 'quasi-marriage' and notes that many gay couples are now deciding to cohabit as stable partners.
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Anna Einadottir (2011)
She notes that while many gays and lesbians welcome the opportunity to have their partnerships legally recognised, others fear that it may limit the flexibility and negotiability of relationships.
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Why has the number of lone parent families risen?
The number of lone-parent families has risen due to the increase in divorce and separation and more recently, due to the increase in the number of never-married women having children.
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Jean Renvoize (1985)
Found that professionals women were able to support their child without the father's involvement.
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Ellis Cashmore (1985)
Found some working class mothers with less earning power chose to live on welfare benefits without a partner, often because they had experienced abuse.
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Charles Murray (1984)
Sees the growth of lone-parent families as resulting from an over generous welfare state providing benefits for unmarried mothers and their children.
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What does Murray argue?
He argues that this has created a 'perverse incentive', that is, it rewards irresponsible behavior such as having children without being able to provide for them.
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Elsa Ferri and Kate Smith (1998)
Found that stepfamilies are very similar to first families in all major respects, and that the involvement of step parents in childcare and childbearing is a positive one.
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Graham Allan and Graham Crow (2001)
Step families may face particular problems of divided loyalties and issues such as contact with the non-resident parent can cause tensions.
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Jane Ribbens McCarthy et al (2003)
Conclude that there is diversity among these families and so we should speak of 'step families' plural rather than 'the step family.
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What does Heidi Safia Mirza (1997) argue?
She argues that the higher rate of lone parent families among blacks is not the result of disorganisation, but rather reflects the high value that black women place on independence.
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What does Tracey Reynolds (2010) argue?
She argues that the statistics are misleading, in that many apparently lone parents are in fact stable, supportive but non-cohabiting relationships.
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Roger Ballard (1982)
Found that extended family ties provided an important source of support among Asian migrants during the 1950s and 1960s.
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What does Peter Willmott (1988) argue?
He argues it continues to exist as a 'dispersed extended family', where relatives are geographically separated but maintain frequent contact through visits and phone calls.
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What is the beanpole family?
The beanpole family is a particular type of extended family.
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What does Julia Brannen (2003) describe the beanpole family as?
She describes it as long and thin.
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Janet Finch and Jennifer Mason (1993)
Found that over 90% of people had given or received financial help, and about half had cared for a sick relative.
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Mason (2011)
Found that much depends on the history of the relationship, the particular obligations women feel towards their relatives, and what other responsibilities they have that would give them 'legitimate excuses' not to be involved.
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Card 2

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Juliet Mitchell and Jack Goody (1997)

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Note that an important change since the 1960s has been the rapid decline in the stigma attached to divorce.

Card 3

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What does secularisation refer to?

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Card 4

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What does Ronald Fletcher (1966) argue?

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Card 5

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What do feminists argue?

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