Topic 4A: DNA, RNA and protein synthesis

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What is the protein DNA is wound around in a eukaryotic cell?
Histones
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What organelles in eukaryotic cells have their own DNA?
Chloroplasts and mitochondria
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How is DNA different in prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic?
Prokaryotic DNA is shorter and circular and isn't wound around histones, it condenses by supercoiling
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How does prokaryotic DNA fit in the cell?
By supercoiling
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Do prokaryotic cells carry DNA as chromosomes?
Yes
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What is a gene?
It is a sequence of DNA bases that code for a polypeptide or funtional RNA
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What is a triplet/codon?
A sequence of 3 bases in a gene
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What is a genome?
The complete set of genes found in a cell
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What is a proteome?
The full range of proteins that the cell is able to produce
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What are introns?
A section of DNA that doesn't code for amino acids
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What are exons?
All the bits of a gene that do code for amino acids
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What are multiple repeats?
DNA sequences that repeat over and over - they are non coding
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
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What forms the primary structure of a protein?
The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
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Name two types of non coding DNA
Introns and multiple repeats
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What are the sections within genes that code for amino acids?
Exons
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What is functional RNA?
RNA molecules except mRNA e.g. tRNA or rRNA
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What's a homologulous pair?
Pairs of matching chromosomes
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What are the features of a homologulous pair of chromosomes?
They are the same size and have the same genes but different alleles
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What is a locus?
The position on a chromosome where a particular allele is found
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What is protein synthesis?
The production of proteins from the iformation contained within a cell's DNA
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What are the two stages of protein synthesis?
Transcription and translation
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What are codons?
Groups of 3 adjacent bases on mRNA
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What is the function of mRNA?
It carries the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosmes
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When is mRNA made?
During transcription
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What holds a tRNA molecule in shape?
Hydrogen bonds
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What is an anticodon?
A specific sequence of 3 bases at one end of a tRNA molecule
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What is the funtion of tRNA?
It carries amino acids that are used to make proteins to the ribsosomes
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What does RNA do?
It lines up free nucleotide bases alongside the exposed bases on the template strand and complementary base pairing happens
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What is splicing?
When introns are removed and exons are joined together in pre-mRNA
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Why does splicing not occur in prokaryotic cells?
There are no introns in prokaryotic DNA
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Why is the mRNA that's produced from a DNA template always a complementary copy of the DNA?
Because of complementary base pairing
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What type of bond joins two amino acids together?
A peptide bond
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At what organelle does translation take place?
Ribosomes
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What are the three features of the genetic code?
It is degenerate, non overlapping and universal
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How is the genetic code non overlapping?
Each base triplet is read in sequence, seperate from the triplet before and after it
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How is the genetic code degenerate?
Some amino acids are coded for by more than one base triplet (e.g. tyrosine is UAU or UAC)
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How is the genetic code universal?
The same specific base triplets code for the same amino acids in all living things
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What is meant by the term 'start signal' in mRNA?
A base triplet that tells the cell when to start production of a particular protein
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What evidence proves the genetic code is degenerate?
There are more possible combinations of triplets than there are amino acids
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How many amino acids are there and how many possible triplets?
There are 20 amino acids and 64 possible triplets
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What organelles in eukaryotic cells have their own DNA?

Back

Chloroplasts and mitochondria

Card 3

Front

How is DNA different in prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does prokaryotic DNA fit in the cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Do prokaryotic cells carry DNA as chromosomes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Altif_123

Really helpful 

atj

in prokaryotic cells dna isn't carried as chromosomes

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