Topic 4 Gender differences in education

  • Created by: zobia 08
  • Created on: 01-05-18 12:10
What is Feminism?
Feminism is a social movement that strives for equal rights for women in all areas of life.
1 of 51
Sue Sharpe's (1994)
Sue Sharpe's (1994) interviews with girls in the 1970s and 1990s show a major shift in the way girls see their future.
2 of 51
O' Connor's (2006)
O' Connor's (2006) study of 14-17 year olds found that marriage and children were not a major part of their life plans.
3 of 51
Beck and Beck Gernsheim (2001)
Link this to the trend towards individualisation in modern society, where independence is valued much more strongly than in the past.
4 of 51
What does Diane Reay (1998) argue?
She argues this reflects the reality of the girls' class position.
5 of 51
Biggart (2007)
Found that working-class girls are more likely to face a precarious position in the labour market and to see motherhood as the only viable option for their futures.
6 of 51
Jo Boaler (1998)
Sees the impact of equal opportunities polices as a key reason for the changes in girls' achievement.
7 of 51
Stephen Gorard (2005)
Found that the gender gap in achievement was fairly constant from 1975 until 1989, when it increased sharply.
8 of 51
Eirene Mitsos and Ken Browne (1998)
Conclude that girls are more successful in coursework because they are more conscientious and better organised than boys.
9 of 51
Spend more time on their work, take more care with the way its presented, are better at meeting deadlines and bring the right equipment and materials to lessons.
10 of 51
What do Eirene Mitsos and Ken Browne (1998) argue?
They argue that these factors have helped girls to benefit from the introduction of coursework in GCSE, AS AND A level.
11 of 51
What does Jannette Elwood (2005) argue?
She argues that although coursework has some influence, it is unlikely to be the only cause of the gender gap because exams have much more influence than coursework on final grades.
12 of 51
Jane and Peter French (1993)
Found that boys received more attention because they attracted more reprimands.
13 of 51
Becky Francis (2001)
Found that while boys got more attention they were disciplined more harshly and felt picked on by teachers, who tended to have lower expectations of them.
14 of 51
Swann (1998)
Found that gender differences in communication styles. Boys dominate in whole-class discussion whereas girls prefer pair work and group work and are better at listening and cooperating.
15 of 51
What does Gaby Weiner (1995) argue?
She argues that since the 1980s teachers have challenged such stereotypes.
16 of 51
David Jackson (1998)
Notes that the introduction of exam league tables has improved opportunities for girls.
17 of 51
What does Roger Slee (1998) argue?
He argues that boys are less attractive to schools because they are more likely to suffer from behavioural difficulties and are four times more likely to be excluded.
18 of 51
Yougov (2007)
According to Yougov 39% of 8-11 year old boys have no lessons whatsoever with a male teacher.
19 of 51
Becky Francis (2006)
Found that two-thirds of 7-8 year olds believed that gender of teachers does not matter.
20 of 51
Barbara Read (2008)
Is critical of the claims that the culture of primary schools is becoming feminised and that only male teachers can exert the firm discipline that boys need to achieve.
21 of 51
What is a disciplinarian discourse?
The teacher's authority is made explicit and visible, for example through shouting, and 'exasperated' tone of voice or sarcasm.
22 of 51
What is a liberal discourse?
The teacher's authority is implicit and invisible. This child centred discourse involves 'pseudo-adultification': the teacher speaks to the pupil as if they were an adult and expects them to be kind, sensible and respectful of the teacher.
23 of 51
Debbie Epstein (1998)
Examined the way masculinity is constructed within school. She found that working class boys are likely to be harassed, labelled as sissies and subjected to homophobic verbal abuse if they appear to be 'swots'.
24 of 51
Jessica Ringrose (2013)
According to feminists such as Jessica these views have been contributed to a moral panic about 'failing boys'.
25 of 51
What does Ringrose argue?
She argues that this moral panic has cause a major shift in educational policy, which is now preoccupied with raising boy's achievement.
26 of 51
Audrey Osler (2006)
Notes that the focus on underachieving boys has led to a neglect of girls. This is partly because of girls often disengage from school quietly.
27 of 51
Tracey McVeigh (2001)
Notes the similarities in girls and boys achievement are far greater than the differences especially when compared with class or ethnic differences.
28 of 51
Connolly (2006)
Suggests certain combinations of gender, class and ethnicity have more effect than others. For example being female raises performance more when 'added to' being black Caribbean than it does when 'added to' being white.
29 of 51
Fiona Norman (1988)
Notes from an early age, boys and girls are dressed differently, given different toys and encouraged to take part in different activities.
30 of 51
Eileen Byrne (1979)
Shows that teachers encourage boys to be tough and and show initiative and not be weak or behave like sissies. Girls on the other hand are expected to be quiet, helpful, clean and tidy.
31 of 51
Patricia Murphy and Jannette Elwood (1998)
Show how these lead to different subject choices. Boys read hobby books and information texts, while girls are more likely to read stories about people.
32 of 51
What do Naima Browne and Carol Ross (1991) argue?
They argue that children's belief about 'gender domains' are shaped by their early experiences and the expectations of adults.
33 of 51
What are gender domains?
Tasks and activities that boys and girls see as male or female 'territory' and therefore as relevant to themselves.
34 of 51
Patricia Murphy (1991)
Found that boys and girls pay attention to different details even when tackling the same task.
35 of 51
Anne Colley (1998)
Notes that computer studies is seen as a masculine subject for 2 reasons. It involves working with machines and the way it is taught is off-putting to females.
36 of 51
Diana Leonard (2006)
Found that compared to pupils in mixed schools, girls in girls' schools were more likely to take maths and science A levels while boys in boys' schools were more likely to take English and languages.
37 of 51
Carrie Paechter (1998)
Found that because pupils see sport as mainly within the male gender domain girls who are 'sporty' have to cope with an image that contradicts the conventional female stereotype.
38 of 51
Alison Dewar (1990)
Found that male students would call girls 'lesbian' or 'butch' if they appeared interested in sport.
39 of 51
When do double standards exist?
A double standard exists when we apply one set of moral standards to one group but a different set to another group.
40 of 51
Sue Lees (1993)
Identifies a double standard of sexual morality in which boys boast about their own sexual exploits, but call a girl a '****' if she doesn't have a steady boyfriend or if she dresses or speaks a certain way.
41 of 51
How do feminists see double standards?
As an example of a patriarchal ideology that justifies male power and devalues women.
42 of 51
Lees (1986)
Found that boys called girls 'slags' if they appeared to be sexually available - and 'drags' if they didn't.
43 of 51
Andrew Parker (1996)
Found that boys were labelled gay simply for being friendly with girls or female teachers.
44 of 51
What is the male gaze?
The way male pupils and teachers look girls up and down, seeing them as sexual objects and making judgements about their appearance.
45 of 51
How does Mac an Ghaill see the male gaze?
Mac an Ghaill sees the male gaze as a form of surveillance through which dominant heterosexual masculinity is reinforced and femininity devalued.
46 of 51
Redman and Mac an Ghaill (1997)
Found that the dominant definition of masculine identity changes from that of the macho lads in the lower school to that of the real Englishmen in the Sixth form.
47 of 51
What does Currie et al (2007) argue?
Argues that while relationships with boys can confer symbolic capital.
48 of 51
Reay (2011)
Found this involved the girls having to perform an asexual identity presenting themselves as lacking any interest in boyfriends or popular fashion.
49 of 51
Chris Haywood ansd Mac an Ghaill (1996)
Found that male teachers told boys of for 'behaving like girls' and teased them when they gained lower marks in tests than girls.
50 of 51
Sue Askew and Carol Ross (1988)
Show how male teachers' behaviour can subtly reinforce messages about gender.
51 of 51

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Sue Sharpe's (1994)


Sue Sharpe's (1994) interviews with girls in the 1970s and 1990s show a major shift in the way girls see their future.

Card 3


O' Connor's (2006)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Beck and Beck Gernsheim (2001)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does Diane Reay (1998) argue?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »