Topic 4: Demography

  • Created by: zobia 08
  • Created on: 13-04-18 20:52
What is the birth rate?
The birth rate is defined as the number of live births per thousand of the population per year.
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What are the reasons for the decline in the birthrate? (4 reasons)
Changes in women's position, Decline in the infant mortality rate, Children are now an economic liability and Child centredness.
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Sarah Harper (2012)
According to Sarah Harper the education of women is the most important reason for the long term fall in birth and fertility rates.
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What does Harper argue?
Harper argues that a fall in the IMR leads to a fall in the birth rate.
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What is the dependency ratio?
The dependency ratio is the relationship between the size of the working or productive part of the population and the size of the non-working dependent part of the population.
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What is the death rate?
The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
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Tranter (1996)
According to Tranter (1996) over three-quarters of the decline in the death rate from about 1850 to 1970 was due to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious diseases.
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What does Thomas Mckeown (1972) argue?
He argues that improved nutrition accounted for up to half the reduction in death rates and was particularly important in reducing the number of deaths from TB.
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Walker (2011)
According to Walker (2011) those living in the poorest areas of England die on average seven years earlier than those in the richest areas, while the average difference in disability free life expectancy is 17 years.
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Donald Hirsch (2005)
Donald Hirsch (2005) notes the traditional age 'pyramid' is disappearing and being replaced by more or less equal sized blocks representing the different age groups.
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What are the three factors that cause an ageing population?
Public services, one person pensioner households and the dependency ratio.
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What does Phillipson (1982) argue?
He argues that the old are no use to capitalism because they no longer productive. As a result the state is unwilling to support them adequately and so the family especially female relatives, often has to take responsibility for their care.
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What do postmodernist sociologists argue?
Postmodernist sociologists argue that in today's postmodern society, the fixed, orderly stages of the life course have broken down.
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What does Hunt (2005) argue?
He argues that this means we can choose a lifestyle and identify regardless of age: our age no longer determines who we are or how we live.
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What does Pilcher (1995) argue?
Pilcher (1995) argues that inequalities such as class and gender remain important.
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What does Donald Hirsch (2005) argue?
He argues that a number of important social policies will need to change to tackle the new problems posed by an ageing population.
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What is migration?
Migration refers to the movement of people from place to place. It can be internal, within a society or international.
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What is immigration?
Immigration refers to movement into a society.
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What is Emigration?
Emigration refers to movement out.
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What is Net migration?
Net Migration is the difference between the numbers of immigrants and the numbers of emigrants, and is expressed as a net increase or a net decrease due to migration.
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What are the reasons emigration have been economic?
'Push' factors such as economic recession and unemployment at home and 'Pull' factors such as higher wages or better opportunities abroad.
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Globalisation is the idea that barriers between societies are disappearing and people are becoming increasingly interconnected across national boundaries.
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What is globalisation the result of?
Globalisation is the result of many processes, including the growth of communication systems and global media, the creation of global markets, the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and the expansion of the European Union.
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Steven Vertovec (2007)
Since the 1990s globalisation has led to what Steven Vertovec (2007) calls 'super diversity'.
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Robin Cohen (2006)
Distinguishes three types of migrant: 1. citizens, 2, denizens and 3 helots.
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Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Hochschild (2003)
Observe that care work, domestic work and sex work in western countries like the UK and USA is increasingly done by women from poor countries.
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Isabel Shutes (2011)
Reports that 40% of adult care nurses in the UK are migrants. Most of these are female.
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John Eade (1994)
Found that second generation Bangladeshi Muslims in Britain created hierarchical identities.
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Thomas Hylland Eriksen (2007)
According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen (2007) globalisation has created more diverse migration patterns with back and forth movements of people through networks rather than permanent settlement in another country.
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What does Castles (2000) argue?
Castles (2000) argues that assimilationist policies are counter-productive because they mark out minority groups as culturally backward or 'other'.
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Castles and Kosack (1973)
According to Castles and Kosack (1973) this benefits capitalism by creating a radically divided working class and preventing united action in defence of their interests.
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Card 2


What are the reasons for the decline in the birthrate? (4 reasons)


Changes in women's position, Decline in the infant mortality rate, Children are now an economic liability and Child centredness.

Card 3


Sarah Harper (2012)


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Card 4


What does Harper argue?


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Card 5


What is the dependency ratio?


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