Topic 3: Ethnic differences in achievement

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  • Created by: zobia 08
  • Created on: 27-04-18 21:30
Tony Lawson and Joan Garrod (2000)
Define ethnic groups as 'people who share common history, customs and identity, as well as, in most cases, language and religion and who see themselves in a distinct unit.
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David Gillborn and Heidi Safia Mirza (2000)
Note that Indian pupils do very well despite often not having English as their home language.
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What does Daniel Moynihan (1965) argue?
He argues that because many black families are headed by a lone mother, their children are deprived of adequate care because she has to struggle financially in the absence of a male breadwinner.
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What does Charles Murray (1984) argue?
He argues that a high rate of lone parenthood and a lack of positive male role models lead to an underachievement of some minorities.
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Roger Scruton (1986)
Sees the low achievement levels of some ethnic minorities as resulting from a failure to embrace mainstream British culture.
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Ken Pryce (1979)
Sees family structure as contributing to the underachievement of black Caribbean pupils in Britain.
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What does Tony Sewell (2009) argue?
He argues that it is not the absence of fathers as role models that leads to black boys underachieving. Instead Sewell sees the problem as a lack of fatherly nurturing or tough love.
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What does Gillborn (2008) argue?
He argues that it is not peer pressure but institutional racism within the education system itself that systematically produces the failure of large numbers of black boys.
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What does Ruth Lupton (2004) argue?
She argues that adult authority in Asian families is similar to the model that operates in schools.
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Andrew McCulloch (2014)
Found that ethnic minority pupils are more likely to aspire to go to university than white British pupils.
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Gillian Evans (2006)
Argues that street culture in white working class areas can be brutal and so young people have to learn how to withstand intimidation and intimidate others.
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Geoffrey Driver (1977)
Criticises cultural deprivation theory for ignoring the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement. He shows that black Caribbean family, far from being dysfunctional, provides girls with positive role models of strong independent women.
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Errol Lawrence (1982)
Challenges Pryce's view that black pupils fail because their culture is weak and they lack self-esteem. He argues that black pupils under-achieve not because of low self-esteem, but because of racism.
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How does Keddie see cultural deprivation?
Keddie sees cultural deprivation as a victim-blaming explanation. She argues that ethnic minority children are culturally different, not culturally deprived.
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What is multicultural education?
A policy that recognises and values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum.
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What is anti-racist education?
A policy that challenges the prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society.
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What is material deprivation?
Means a lack of those physical necessities that are seen as essential or normal for life in today's society.
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Tariq Modood (2004)
Found that, while children from low income families generally did less well the effects of low income were much less for other ethnic groups that for white pupils.
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David Mason (2000)
Discrimination is a continuing and persistent feature of the experience of Britain's citizens of minority ethnic origin.
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John Rex (1986)
Shows how radical discrimination leads to social exclusion and how this worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities.
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Gillborn and Mirza (2000)
According to Gillborn and Mirza (2000), in 1 local education authority black children were the highest achievers on entry to primary school yet by the time it came to GCSE they had the worst results.
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Steve Strand's (2010) analysis
Similarly Steve Strand's (2010) analysis of the entire national of over 530,000 7-11 years olds shows how quickly many black pupils fall behind after staring school.
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Gillborn and Youndell (2000)
They found that teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour.
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What do Gillborn and Youndell argue?
They argue that this is a result of teachers' 'racialised expectations'. They found that teachers expected black pupils to present more discipline problems and misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening or as a challenge to authority.
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Jenny Bourne (1994)
Found schools tend to see black boys as a threat and to label them negatively, leading eventually to exclusion.
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Peter Foster (1990)
Found that teachers' stereotypes of black pupils as badly behaved could result in them being placed in lower sets than other pupils of similar ability.
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Cecile Wright's (1992) study
Cecile Wright's (1992) study of a multi-ethnic primary school shows that Asian pupils can also be victims of teachers' labelling. She found that despite the schools apparent commitment to equal opportunities, teachers held ethnocentric views.
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Louise Archer (2008)
According to Louise Archer, teachers dominant discourse defines ethnic minority pupils' identity as lacking the favoured identity of the ideal pupil.
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What is the ideal pupil identity?
A white, middle-class, masculinised identity, with a normal sexuality. This pupil is seen as achieving in the 'right' way, through natural ability and initiative.
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What is the pathologised pupil identity?
An Asian, 'deserving poor', feminised identity, either asexual or with an oppressed sexuality. This pupil is seen as a plodding, conformist and culture-bound, 'over achiever', a slogger who succeeds through hard work rather than natural ability.
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What is the demonised pupil identity?
A black or white, working-class, hyper-sexualised identity. This pupil is seen as unintelligent, peer-led, culturally deprived, under-achiever.
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Archer (2010)
In a further study Archer found that teachers stereotyped Asian girls as quiet, passive or docile.
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Mary Fuller's (1984) study
Her study of a group of black pupils in year 11 of a London comprehensive school. The girls were untypical because they were high achievers in a school where most black girls were placed in low streams.
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Mairtin Mac an Ghaill's (1992) study
His study of black and Asian A level students at a sixth form college reached similar conclusions. Students who believed teachers had labelled them negatively did not necessarily accept the label.
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Heidi Safia Mirza (1992)
Studied ambitious black girls who faced teacher racism, Mirza found that racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious through the kind of advice they gave them about careers and option choices.
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What are the three types of teacher racism identified by Mirza?
The colour blind, The liberal chauvinists, The overt racists.
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What is the colour-blind teacher?
Teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged.
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What is the liberal chauvinists teacher?
Teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived and who have low expectations of them.
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What is the overt racists teacher?
Teachers who believe blacks are inferior and actively discriminate against them.
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What do Troyana and Williams (1986) argue?
Argue that to explain ethnic differences in achievement, we need to go beyond simply examining individual teacher racism. We must also look at how schools and colleges routinely and even unconsciously discriminate against ethnic minorities.
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What do Troyna and Williams make a distinction between?
They make a distinction between individual racism and institutional racism.
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What is individual racism?
That results from the prejudiced views of individual teachers and others.
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What is institutional racism?
Discrimination that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate.
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How do critical race theory see racism?
They see racism as an ingrained feature of society. This means that it involves not just the intentional actions of individuals but more importantly institutional racism.
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Daria Roithmayr (2003)
For critical race theorists such as Daria Roithmayr institutional racism is a locked-in-inequality. The scale of historical discrimination is so large that there no longer needs to be any conscious intent to discriminate.
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Gillborn (2008)
Applies the concept of locked-in-inequality to education. He sees ethnic inequality as "so deep rooted and so large that it is a practically inevitable feature of the education system".
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What does Gillborn (1997) argue?
He argues that because marketisation gives schools more scope to select pupils, it allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about schools admissions.
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What does ethnocentric mean?
The term 'ethnocentric' describes an attitude or policy that gives priority to the culture and viewpoint of one particular ethnic group, while disregarding others.
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Bernard Coard (1971:2005)
Explains how ethnocentric curriculum may produce underachievement.
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What does Maureen Stone (1981) argue?
She argues that black children do not in fact suffer from low self-esteem.
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What does Gillborn (2008) argue?
He argues that 'the assessment game' is rigged so as to validate the dominant culture's superiority.
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What does Gillian Evans (2006) argue?
Argues that to fully understand the relationship between ethnicity and achievement we need to look at how ethnicity interacts with gender and class.
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Card 2

Front

David Gillborn and Heidi Safia Mirza (2000)

Back

Note that Indian pupils do very well despite often not having English as their home language.

Card 3

Front

What does Daniel Moynihan (1965) argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does Charles Murray (1984) argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Roger Scruton (1986)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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