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Information and systems
- Information needs in organisations - ICT supporting the activities of organisations - The types of ICT systems and their uses
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Different organisations have different needs, three types of organisations
- commercial - industrial - public service
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Commercial
- goods bought and sold for profit - or service provided = retailers, whole sale, banks etc.
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Industrial
- manufacture of products - car manufacturers, house builders etc.
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Public service
- provide goods and services from public funds - profit is NOT an aim - aim is to benefit the public = hospitals, police services, her majesty's revenue and customs.
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Scales of organisations
Small, Medium and Large
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Small
- 1 - 50 employees - generally informal structure - usually confined to single site - use LAN's
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Medium
- Between 50 and 500 employees - uses formal structure - use WAN's and LAN's
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Large
- 500 or more employees - diverse range of products or services - can involve many separate companies - large number of staff - hierarchical - rely on both WAN's and LAN's
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Management styles
- Autocratic - Paternalistic - Democratic - Laissez-faire
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Autocratic
- clear authority - all decisions made by senior managers - little decisions made by lower down - workers told what to do and don't work on their own initiative - are efficiently run organisations but staff are often demotivated
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Paternalistic
- senior managers have authority - decisions are in the employees interest more than the companies - decisions are explained to the workforce and agreed upon - employees feel happy and loyal as a result to the company
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Democratic
- employees take part in the decision making - used for ICT projects - decision making process takes longer as meetings have to arranged for decisions to be made
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laissez - faire
- little mangement - staff are left to get on with their own work - could cause issues due to lack of management
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Information needs
ordering systems and customer support
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ordering systems
- order details - stock - process payments - organise delivery - substitution of similar products - refunds and exchanges
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customer suport
- any enquiries/ queries - any issues and complaints - tech advice - arranging repairs, refunds or replacements
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Levels of an organisation
- strategic - tactical - operational
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Strategic
- directors/CEO's - plan to achieve a significant goal - make decisions on the overall direction of the company e.g.- overall takeover - decisions regarding expansions - major expenses such as a new ICT system INFORMATION - overviews, little detail
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Tactical
- Managers/supervisors - look at how to achieve the objectives - make decisions using operational info e.g. when hiring someone INFORMATION NEEDS - summaries and reports
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Operational
- staff members - make day to day decisions that keep the business running e.g.- ordering stock - attracting new customers - dealing with customer/ client queries INFORMATION NEEDS - Information about day to day transactions
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Official and legal bodies
- these bodies place obligations on a company so the clients and customers are supported - Information commissioner's office /
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What are the two issues with transferring information from one organisation to another?
- Privacy - Security
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Privacy
- only giving relevant data - keeping data you don't want shared where possible REDUCED BY - companies not asking for irrelevant information - not keeping data for longer than required
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Security
- keeping data safe from those without authority REDUCED BY - the use of firewalls - Usernames and passwords - Policies and procedures
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legal obligations of collecting data and sharing it
- they company must register the use of personal data with the Information Commissioner's office and tell them who the data is sent to - must have sufficient security in place required by Data Protection Act 1998 - no copyright laws are broken
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How can ICT improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes?
- improve accuracy of decisions = reduce risk, save money time resources - increase efficiency - reduce cost, by using automating tasks - use of websites = shop around the world - electronic transfer of data - increase productivity - reduce waste
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Payroll
- pay - tax - hours worked - any holiday - overtime
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Personnel
- relate to staff - employee address- NI number
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Accounting
- Managing and keeping track of cash and bank balances - cash owed to suppliers - value of properties
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Supply chain
- can involve many different organisations in the process between the supplier and the customer - the manufacturer - delivery service - this helps to increase efficiency and reduce costs/ enhance profit
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Legacy system
- existing systems that new systems may need to import and export data to - may be due to many reasons e.g. - budget - time it takes to replace a system
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Types of systems
- corporate information - management information - customer relationship - decision support - enterprise information - document management - workflow management - systems for collaborative working - Back office system
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corporate information
- A single company wide system - all information needs - something to aim towards but cannot be achieved + data entered once = reduced errors + backup easier - failure of system = all processes effected
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management information
- Provides management (strategic and tactical) internal and external to help with decisions - analysis of trend in data - comparing locations of a company info
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customer relationship
- know and understand your customer and what they want to buy - serve them better and tailor marketing
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decision support
- Modelling systems that help to consider 'what if' scenarios - helps to work out what profits and benefits could be gained and what could be lost from a decision
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enterprise information
- single large system - brings together info from various business processes -e.g. stock,manufacturing for products
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document management
- holds electronically company documents - reducing paper documents + keeps data safer +many people can access this from various locations within the company - could put data at risk
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workflow management
- allows staff to get relevant info for their task - what they need, when they need it
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systems for collaborative working
- when a team is working on a project they will need to access all parts of work
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Back office system
- only seen by staff - what is happening behind the scenes in a business - accounts, database management and stock
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E - commerce
- buying and selling online e.g. amazon
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Card 2

Front

Different organisations have different needs, three types of organisations

Back

- commercial - industrial - public service

Card 3

Front

Commercial

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Industrial

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Public service

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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