Topic 11 Manipulating and Combining Materials

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What industry in particular uses paper-based packaging materials? Why?
The food industry because it is most economical
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What is good about using cardboard cartons?
Can be shaped easily; Collapsible; Printable; Can have dispensing/ resealing features; Windows for viewing the product; Can be used more multipacks; Economical
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What is corrugated cardboard used for?
Protecting a variety of products, usually during transit
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What does aseptic mean?
Sterile
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What is lined board made of?
Thin layers of paper-based board, aluminium foil and polythene film laminated together
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What is good about using many different materials to make up one packaging material?
You get the best properties of each individual material in one packaging material
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Give an example of an asecptic package
Brik Pak
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What is a Brik Pak made of?
Cardboard, polythene film and aluminium foil
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What are the good things about using cardboard in Brik Paks?
Mechanically stable material; Good heat resistance; Good light protection; Printable surface
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What is good about using aluminium foil in Brik Paks?
Good light, gas and water barrier (especially when between two plastic layers); Thermally stable
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Give examples of aseptic packaging
Fruit juice cartons; milk cartons and soups
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What is the disadvantage of using composite materials?
Recycling is difficult because it is hard to separate the various materials
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Why are timber-based products not used so often?
Expensive; Can become unstable; limitations of size
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What is good about using manufactured boards in particular?
Can be made in large sheets; often from waste materials; Very stable
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What is bad about using manufactured boards in particular?
Unattractive
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What is a veneer?
A decorative layer of 0.8mm thick wood cut from the trunkk of hardwood trees to make manufactured wood look more appealing
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Do veneers increase or decrease the cost of a product? Why?
Decrease because you can use manufactured boards underneath which is cheaper than natural wood
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Give an example of a company that uses veneered manufactured board extensively
IKEA
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What is the plastic laminate in kitchen surfaces made of?
Layers of printed paper in a plastic resin
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What does the paper do in plastic laminates?
Decorative finish
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What does the resin do in plastic laminates?
Provides a hardwearing, heat-resistant coating
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Give two examples of items that have plastic laminates on them
Kitchen worktops and laminate flooring
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Why do ferrous metals need protecting?
They are easily rusted (apart from stainless steel)
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Why do non-ferrous metals not need protecting?
They have a natural oxide layer on them to prevent corrosion
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What is electroplating?
The electrochemical process of coating a base metal with other metals
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What does electroplating do?
Prevents corrosion, makes the product more attractive and gives it a durable finish
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Give an example of a product that is electroplated and state what metal it is electroplated with
Bathroom taps with chromium
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What is the process of dipping?
Metals can be coated in a metal by dipping them in another metal
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What is the process of tin plating?
Steel sheets are passed though tanks of molten tin at high temperatures
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Give an example of a material that is tin plated
Tin cans
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What is the process of zinc plating?
Dipping steel into containers of molten zinc
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What is another word for zinc plating?
Galvanising
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Give two examples of products that have been zinc plated
Lamposts and car body shells
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What is enamelling?
Coating ferrous or non-ferrous metals in a layer of finely ground glass
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What is the process of enamellling?
Heating the metal to a high temperature so the enamel fuses together to provide a hard coating
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What are the properties of a steel enamelled material?
Heat resistant, scratch resistant
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Give an example of a product that has been enamelled
Cookers
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Give an example of a product that has a fine enamel on it
Applying colour to silver or gold jewellery
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What is plastic coating?
The process of applying a thermoplastic to the surface of metal items
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What properties does plastic coating give a product?
Long term corrision, impact and chemical resistance
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Does plastic coating a metal make it look attractive?
Yes
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What can be added to plastics to add bulk?
Sawdust, limestone and crushed quartz
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What is the purpose of adding plasticisers to a plastic?
To improve the flow properties when injection moulding
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What are flame-retardants used for for plastics?
Makes the plastic resistant to combustion
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What is the purpose of adding additives to a plastic?
Changes its properties and makes it more biodegradable
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What are biodegradable plastics made of?
Wheat, corn or potatoes
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Are the raw materials that make biodegradable plastics renewable?
Yes
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When are biodegradable plastics mainly used?
As a packaging material in the food industry
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In composites, do the properties of the materials involve change?
No
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Give two examples of composites
Glass-reinforced plastic and reinforced concrete
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What is another word for glass-reinforced plastic?
Fibreglass
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What is fibreglass made of?
Spun glass fibres in a polyester resin
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What are the properties of GRP?
Light, tough and rigid
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Give two examples of when GRP is used
Boat hulls and car body shells
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What has been used instead of GRP?
Carbon fibres
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Give examples of when carbon fibre is used
F1 racing cars, prosthetic limbs, bicycles, racing cars and helicopter rotor blades
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Why is carbon fibre taking over GRP?
Stonger and lighter
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What is concrete good with?
Compression
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What is concrete weak at?
Tension
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What has been done to solve the problem of concrete's weakness?
It is cast around a cage of pre-stressed, steel reinforcements so the steel takes up the tension stresses and the concrete takes up the compression stresses
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What is a smart system?
Products designed to respond to changes in their environment made from more than one material
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What is good about using smart materials and systems?
Reduce chance of failure; greater levels of functionality; simplify products; reduce weight; allow existing products to be improved
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What is a photochromic material (definition)?
Change colour in response to light
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Give an example of a product that uses photochromic materials
Reactive lenses in glasses that get darker as light levels increase
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What is a thermochromic material (definition)?
A material that changes colour due to temperature changes
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Give examples of products that contain thermochromic materials
Bath plugs that change colour if the water is too hot; Clothing that reacts to the wearer's body temperature
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What is an electroluminescent material (definition)?
Produces light of different colours when current passes through it
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What is good about electroluminescent materials?
Produce no heat
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Give an example of a product that uses electroluminescent materials
Emergency exit signs
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What is a fluorescent material?
A material that produces light only when exposed to UV rays
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What is a phosphorescent material?
A material that produces light only after being exposed to light, but only after the source has been removed
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Give an example of a product that uses phosphorescent materials
Emergency warning signs
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What are piezoelectric materials?
Transfer mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa
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Give an example of a product that uses piezoelectric materials
Smart skis
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What are shape-memory alloys?
Metals that, after being strained, at a certain temperature revert back to their original shape
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Give examples of products that use shape-memory alloys
Dental braces, shape memory stents and Memoflex glasses
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What have Quantum tunnelling composites been used for?
Creating touch-sensitive switches and controlling electronic devices in clothing
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What are thermoelectric materials?
Materials that heat up on one side and cool down on the other when a current is applied
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Give an example of a product that uses thermoelectric materials
Plates to heat or cool food
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What are magneto-rheological materials?
Become solid when a magnetic field is passed through them
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What have magneti-rheological materials been used for?
Dampers in buildings to suppress vibrations and the damaging effects of high winds or earthquakes
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Name two products that are being developed for the future
Food packaging that automatically opens on heating for people with arthritis; Fasteners so that a product will disassemble when heated at one or different temperatures. The components could then be separated by shaking the product
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What technology could the fasteners idea be used for?
Mobile phones
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What is good about using fasteners to disassemble products?
Saves time and money - easier to separate so more recycling
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What do scientists predict will be the future of nanotechnology?
To make really small machines- the ultimate smart systems
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What is carbon fibre made of?
Thin fibres of carbon twisted into a yarn which is woven to form a fabric cloth. This can be combined with a plastic resin which bonds the fibres together
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What are fibre optics?
Thin glass or plastic fibres used to transmit light over long distances very efficiently
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What is fibre optics being used for?
Lighting
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Give examples of waterproof and breathable fabrics?
Gore-tex and Sympatex
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What are waterproof and breathable fabrics made of?
A porous membrane that allows water droplets to escape but not to penetrate. This is laminated to protect the membrane
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What are waterproof but breathable fabrics currently used for?
Walking and cycling clothes
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What is kevlar?
A flexible, plastic-based material that is five times stronger than steel
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What are some uses of kevlar?
Bicycle tyres and body armour (stab vests)
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What is Maplex?
A plain brown board made from wood fibres, heat, water and pressure where no binders or glue is used
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What is good about Maplex?
Strong, easily moulded and biodegradable
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Give an example of a product that uses Maplex
Chairs
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What are the properties of polymorph?
Biodegradable, low melting point, thermoplastic
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What are some uses of polymorph?
Used for medical applications it can be shaped by hand to resemble injection moulded products
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What is PMC?
Precious metal clay
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What is PMC made of?
Microscopic metal particles are combined with a moist binder to create a material with the feel and working properties of clay
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How is PMC jewellery made?
Designs are shaped and moulded, air dried to remove moisture, kiln fired, cooled and finished like any other item of jewellery
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Why were smart skis invented?
Vibrations of rough terrain means less stability and control and therefore speed
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How do smart skis work?
Ceramic piezoelectric sensors detect vibrations which sends electrical signals to control circuit. Electrical energy is sent to the piezoelectric material to change stiffness and relax or stiffen the ski for smoother. more controlled ride
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How does the D30 insert in protective beanies work?
On impact, the molecules lock together to absorb the shock in a similar way to ski helmets
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What is a D30 insert normally like?
Soft and flexible
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What are Nike's SL football boots made of?
Carbon fibre
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What was Nike's aim when making the SL football boots?
Produce the fastest, lightest boot possible
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What have synthetic materials allowed designers to do?
Make interesting shapes for products
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What can Quantum tunnelling devices do?
Change from being an insulator to a conductor when pressure is applied
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What do QTCs contain?
Particles of a metal held in a non-conducting thermoplastic material
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How do QTCs work?
When the material is squeezed, the metal particles move closer together and the material becomes a conductor
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What is good about having QTCs in clothing?
Makes it more convenient to operate devices remotely
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What are standard components?
Pre-manufactured parts bought in by individuals or commercial companies
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What sort of production systems are standard components used in?
Batch and mass production
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Give some examples of pre-manufactured standard components
Jars, zips, buttons, nuts, bolts, nails, screws, resistors, USB socket, flan base
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What is good about using standard components?
Reduced cost, consistent quality, standard sizing, universal so can be used all over the world, quick and easy to use, reduced waste, more scope for recycling, reduced maintenance costs, more efficient production
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What are economies of scale?
Mass production that allows products to be produced at a lower cost
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Give an example of where the same components are used for many products
Car industry - even different styles of car and companies within the one company
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What sort of production is used to make standard components? Why is this type used?
Mass so they can be produced cheaply in large quantities
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Give some examples of standard components in the textiles industry
Zips, buttons, Velcro, press-studs
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Give examples of standard components used in the manufacturing industry
Nails, screws, rivets, nuts, bolts, hinges
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Give examples of standard components used in the food industry
Stock cubes, marzipan, icing, pasta sauces, frozen garden peas, pre-cooked prawns, pizza bases, ready made pastry cases
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is good about using cardboard cartons?

Back

Can be shaped easily; Collapsible; Printable; Can have dispensing/ resealing features; Windows for viewing the product; Can be used more multipacks; Economical

Card 3

Front

What is corrugated cardboard used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does aseptic mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is lined board made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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