Topic 10: Evolution, Genetics and Behaviour (PS111 test 2)

  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 19-03-17 12:50
Why does evolution interest psychologists?
Understanding possible origins and the adaptive functions of human behvaiour
1 of 101
Why does evolution interest psychologists?
Understanding ultimate causes
2 of 101
Why does evolution interest psychologists?
Understanding proximal causes
3 of 101
Why does evolution interest psychologists
Understanding how an organism's evolutionary history contributes to the behaviours used during its lifetime
4 of 101
What are ultimate causes?
The real reason something occured
5 of 101
What are proximal causes?
The event which is closest to, or imesult.mediately responsible for causing, some observed result
6 of 101
What does evolution mean?
Change over time
7 of 101
What does evolution mean in the context of biology?
The change in inherited characteristics from generation to generation
8 of 101
What are people interested in?
The changes in the phenotype over time
9 of 101
What is the phenotype?
thraction of its genotype with the environment.e set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the inte
10 of 101
What is the genotype?
the genetic constitution of an individual organism
11 of 101
What type of "human" existed 2-4 million years ago?
Homo Habilis
12 of 101
What type of "human" existed 400,000 years later after the one which existed 2-4 million years ago?
Homo Erectus
13 of 101
What type of "human" existed 300,000 years ago?
Homo Neanderthalensis
14 of 101
What type of "human" exists today?
Homo Sapiens
15 of 101
Was the Homo Habilis bipedal (uses two legs for walking)?
Yes
16 of 101
Did the Homo Habilis use tools?
Yes
17 of 101
Who was larger the Homo Habilis or the Homo Erectus?
Homo Erectus
18 of 101
Who stood more upright the Homo Habilis or the Homo Erectus?
Homo Erectus
19 of 101
Who had the better tools (fire, weapons, clothes) the Homo Habilis or the Homo Erectus?
Homo Erectus
20 of 101
Who created "base camps"?
Homo Erectus
21 of 101
Who first built homes?
Homo Neanderthalensis
22 of 101
Who first had cultural rituals?
Homo Neanderthalensis
23 of 101
Who had the most sophisticated tool use the Homo Erectus or the Homo Neanderthalensis?
Homo Neanderthalensis
24 of 101
What is Mendel's law of (particulate) inheritance?
A gene is the smallest unit that can be inherited
25 of 101
What is Mendel's law of segregation?
Two allelles for every gene, only one is inherited
26 of 101
What is Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment?
Traits are inherited independently from one another
27 of 101
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
28 of 101
What is DNA?
Strands of sugar and phosphate connected by nucleotide molecules
29 of 101
What are the four nucleotide molecules in DNA?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytocine
30 of 101
What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with A?
Adenine
31 of 101
What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with T?
Thymine
32 of 101
What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with G?
Guanine
33 of 101
What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with C?
Cytocine
34 of 101
What does Adenine pair with? (DNA)
Thymine
35 of 101
What does Thymine pair with? (DNA)
Adenine
36 of 101
What does Cytocine pair with? (DNA)
Guanine
37 of 101
What does Guanine pair with? (DNA)
Cytocine
38 of 101
what does the precise sequence of the nucleotides dictate?
The synthesis of protein molecules that regulate the development of a body
39 of 101
What is a Gene?
A segment of DNA
40 of 101
What unit is Genes?
The basic unit of heredity
41 of 101
How many genes do humans have?
25,000
42 of 101
What do Genes do?
Act as instructions to make proteins
43 of 101
Each sequence of nucleotides specifies an...?
Amino Acid
44 of 101
What do genes direct?
The production of proteins
45 of 101
How to genes express themselves?
Via the effects proteins have
46 of 101
Where are Genes located?
In chromosomes
47 of 101
What do Chromosome's contain?
A particular sequence of genes (pairs of genes)
48 of 101
How man chromosomes does each sperm carry?
23
49 of 101
How many chromosomes does each ovum (egg) carry?
23
50 of 101
What is it called when an egg and sperm meet?
Meiosis
51 of 101
When an egg and sperm meet what happens to the Chromosomes?
They "pair up"
52 of 101
What is each gene-pair called?
An allele
53 of 101
If both parents contribute the same alleles for a pair of genes the combination is called....?
Homozygous
54 of 101
If both parents contribute different alleles for a pair of genes the combination is called....?
Heterozygous
55 of 101
When parents contribute different alleles to a pair what happens?
The trait the gene expresses is determined by which gene is dominant and which is recessive
56 of 101
An organism's genotype is?
The genes it carries
57 of 101
An organism's phenotype is?
It's observable characteristics
58 of 101
An organism's phenotype is determined by....?
The genes and the environment?
59 of 101
What are the four evolutionary forces?
Mutation, Migration, Genetic drift and Natural selection
60 of 101
What evolutionary force introduces variance?
Mutation and Migration
61 of 101
What evolutionary force cases genes to be filtered and genes to be shuffled?
Natural selection
62 of 101
What does Genetic drift do?
It is random, "sampling error", no direction
63 of 101
What is Mutation?
A random change in DNA
64 of 101
Do all mutations matter to evolution?
No (only those that can be passed on to offspring do)
65 of 101
Where does Mutation occur?
In reproductive cells
66 of 101
When does migration happen?
When a gene moves from one population to another
67 of 101
When does Genetic Drift occur?
When bad luck and random chance wipe out or drastically reduce certain genes
68 of 101
Who came up with the idea of natural selection?
Charles Darwin
69 of 101
What are the three components in natural selection?
1. There must be variation in the population for a trait. 2. The trait must impact reproductive success. 3. The trait must be "heritable"
70 of 101
What is the benefit of Organisms varying considerably within and between a species
It provides "raw material" for natural selection
71 of 101
How are traits passed on to the new generation?
Through reproduction
72 of 101
What is the "bottom line" of evolution?
Reproduction
73 of 101
Inherited traits do not play a role in the biological evolution of organisms
False (they do)
74 of 101
Are useful traits which help survival and reproduction more likely to be passed on?
Yes
75 of 101
Are some mutations more favourable than others?
Yes
76 of 101
Are more favourable mutations (such as blue eyes) more likely to be inherited?
Yes
77 of 101
What are the four important developments in evolution?
Perception/Action, Bipedalism, Encephalisation, Language
78 of 101
Why is Perception/Action an important evolutionary development?
Because it allows organisms to respond to more detailed information from the environment which then requires more complex nervous systems and brains.
79 of 101
Why is Bipedalism an important evolutionary development?
Because it gives you greater mobility and frees up the hands for tools
80 of 101
Why is Encephalisation an important evolutionary development?
Increased brain to body size is good because it allows rapid learning and other things requiring a large, complex brain.
81 of 101
Why is Language an important evolutionary development?
Because it allows us to organise as a social group and pass on information
82 of 101
What is good evidence for the idea that evolution influences our behaviour?
Animal husbandry (breeding animals)
83 of 101
How does Animal Husbandry support the idea that evolution influences our behaviour?
Because we can breed animals for certain behavioural traits
84 of 101
How can our behaviour function to increase our reproductive success?
Increasing chances of survival, mating strategies, child rearing and social behaviour
85 of 101
What traits, behaviours and neural machinery did we evolve to improve our chances of survival?
Detecting lying and cheating, Bonding with babies, Cognitive biases towards caution/fear, emotion
86 of 101
What type of studies has helped us to understand genetics?
Twin studies
87 of 101
What are Identical twins called?
Monozygotic
88 of 101
What are non identical twins called?
Dizygotic
89 of 101
What is an issue with twin studies?
Same environments. Even separated twins are likely to be raised in the same culture.
90 of 101
What is Altruism?
The unselfish concern of one individual for the welfare of another
91 of 101
Is there a benefit to Altruism
It would seem so, many species live in Alturistic communities
92 of 101
Is there a problem with Alturism being an important tool?
Yes, it is hard to see a benefit of hurting yourself to help another
93 of 101
Who looked at why Alturism is important?
Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964)
94 of 101
Why did Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964) say Alturistic behaviour is good? (Kin selection)
It arose to protect our family, our family has the same genes thus if they are okay the genes will survive.
95 of 101
What is the evidence for Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964) 's views that Alteristic behaviour is there to help protect your family (kin selection)
Parenting
96 of 101
What is the name of Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964) 's views that Alteristic behaviour is there to help protect your family
Kin selection
97 of 101
What is a problem with Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964) ''s Kin selection theory?
It doesn't explain altruism towards strangers and friends
98 of 101
Who came up with Reciprocal Altruism?
Trayers (1971)
99 of 101
What did Trayers (1971) say about Reciprocal Altruism?
That it exists because humans (and other social animals) benefit from co-operating in groups
100 of 101
Why is Altruism reciprocal and not unconditional?
Because some people would take advantage of it, so we only be kind to those who have been kind to us
101 of 101

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why does evolution interest psychologists?

Back

Understanding ultimate causes

Card 3

Front

Why does evolution interest psychologists?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why does evolution interest psychologists

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are ultimate causes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Evolution, genetics and behaviour resources »