Topic 10 Chemistry GCSE

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What is potable water?
Water that is safe to drink is called potable water
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Is potable water pure?
No, potable water contains some dissolved substances
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What is 'safe water'?
Safe water should have sufficiently low levels of dissolved salts and microbes
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What can we do to salty water if supplies of fresh water are limited?
Desalination of salty water or sea water may be required. Desalinisation can be done by distillation or by processes that use membranes such as reverse osmosis
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What are treatments of ground water?
Passing the water through filter beds and then sterilising it. Sterilising agents used for potable water include chlorine, ozone or UV light.
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What do sewage and agricultural waste water require the removal of?
organic matter and harmful microbes
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What does industrial waste water require the removal of?
organic matter and harmful chemicals
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What do sewage treatments include?
-Screening and grit removal -Sedimentation to produce sewage sludge and effluent -anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge -aerobic biological treatment of effluent
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Copper ores are becoming scarce, what do new ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores include?
phytomining and bioleaching
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Explain phytomining?
Phytomining uses plants to absorb metal compounds. The plants are harvested and then burned to produce ash that contains metal compounds
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Explain Bioleaching?
Bleaching uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds
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Life cycle assessments are carried out to assess the environmental impact of products in what stages?
-Extracting and processing raw materials -Manufacturing and packaging -Use and operation during its lifetime -Disposal at the end of its useful life - (includes transport and distribution at each stage)
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Ceramics (Soda glass and borosilicate glass)
Soda Glass- Made by melting sand, Sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. Used in Windows and containers. Borosilicate glass- Made by heating sand and Na3BO3. Can be used in laboratory glassware and cookware.
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More ceramics (Clay ceramics)
Clay ceramics- Made by shaping wet clay that is then baked in a furnace or kiln
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Polymers
Thermosetting polymers- Made with ethene with a catalyst. Used in superglue. Thermoplastic polymers- Ethene with a catalyst. Uses include PVC, polyesters and perspex
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Composites
Wood- uses in building material and furniture Concrete- Made by mixing cement and water with sand and crushed rock reinforcements. Uses in building materials. Fibreglass- (glass fibres in polymer) Uses in Building Materials and storage tanks.
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What is corrosion?
The word used to describe the reaction between a metal and the substances in its environment.
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What is it called when iron corrodes?
Rusting
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Corrosion reaction
Water and air will react the most. The reaction is also speeded up is salt is added
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What are some ways that corrosion is prevented?
-Coat the metal in a paint of a plastic -Galvanising (coat the metal in another more reactive metal) -Use special chemicals called corrosion inhibitors -Use sacrificial protection by attaching a more reactive metal so that one will react first.
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What is the structure of a thermoplastic?
Contains long polymer chains that are NOT joined (but are tangled up)
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What is the structure of a thermoset?
Contains long polymer chains that ARE joined by covalent bonds
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Why are thermoplastics softer than thermosets?
The chains can slide over each other in a thermoplastic but are held rigid in a thermoset
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Why do thermosets not melt?
The long chains are held rigid
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What type of plastic would you use for electrical sockets?
Thermoset
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What type of plastic would you use for making fibres for clothes?
Thermoplastics
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About the alloy Bronze
Main metals are Copper and Tin. Other metals include Mn, Al, Ni, Zn. It is harder than the pure metal. Can be used in Medals, Industry and Sculptures.
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About the alloy Brass
Main metals are Copper snd Zinc. It is harder and stronger than the pure metal. It can be used in Hinges, Electrical plugs, Instruments and Taps.
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About the alloy Gold
Main metal is Gold. Other metals include Cu, Zn, Ag, Au. It is harder than the pure metal. It is used in jewellery.
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About the alloy High Carbon Steel
Main Metals are Iron and Carbon. It is harder and more brittle than the pure metal. It is used in cutting tools.
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About the alloy Low Carbon Steel
Main metals are Iron and Carbon. It is softer and more malleable than the pure metal. It is used in car panels.
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About the alloy Stainless Steel
Main metal is Iron. Other metals include Carbon, Nickel and Chromium. It is harder and resists corrosion better than the pure metal. It is used in cutlery.
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About the alloy Aluminium (alloy)
The main metal is aluminium. Other metals include Cu, Mg, Si, Zn. It has a lower density than the pure metal. It is used in Aeroplanes.
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What are the fibres and Matrix in Wood?
Lignin and Cellulose fibres.
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What are the fibres and Matrix in Cement?
Cement, Water, Sand and Crushed Rock
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What are the fibres and Matrix in Fibre Glass?
Polymer and Glass Fibres
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Is potable water pure?

Back

No, potable water contains some dissolved substances

Card 3

Front

What is 'safe water'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can we do to salty water if supplies of fresh water are limited?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are treatments of ground water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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