Topic 1: Class differences in achievement (1) external factors

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  • Created by: zobia 08
  • Created on: 27-04-18 11:55
What is cultural deprivation?
The theory that many working class and black children are inadequately socalised and therefore lack the 'right' culture needed for educational success.
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What are internal factors?
These are factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions between pupils and teachers, and inequalities between schools.
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What are external factors?
These are factors outside the education system, such as the influence of home and family background and wider society.
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Hubbs-Tait et al (2002)
Found that where parents use language that challenges their children to evaluate their own understanding or abilities cognitive performance improves.
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Leon Feinstein (2008)
Found that educated parents are more likely to use language this way.
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Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann (1966)
Claim that the language used in lower class homes is deficient. They describe lower class families as communicating by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases.
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Basil Bernstein (1975)
Identifies between differences between working class and middle class language that influence achievement. He distinguishes between between two types of speech code: the elaborated code and restricted code.
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What is the restricted code?
Is the speech code typically used by the working class. It has limited vocabulary and is based on the use of short, often unfinished, grammatically simple sentences. Speech is predictable and may involve only single words or even just a gesture.
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What is the elaborated code?
Is typically used by the middle class. It has wider vocabulary and is based on longer, grammatically more complex sentences. Speech is more varied and communicates abstract ideas. The elaborated code is context free.
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Douglas (1964)
Found that working class parents placed less value on education. As a result they were less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragement and took less interest in their education.
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What does Leon Feinstein (2008) argue?
He argues that parents' own education is the most important factor affecting children's achievement and since middle class parents tend to be better educated, they are able to give their children an advantage by how they socilaise them.
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Bernstein and Young (1967)
Found, middle class mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books and activities that encourage reasoning skills and stimulate intellectual development.
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What is a subculture?
A subculture is a group whose attitudes and values differ from those of the mainstream culture.
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What does Barry Sugarman (1970) argue?
He argues that working class subculture has four key features that act as a barrier to educational achievement.
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What are the four features of Sugarman's barrier to educational achievement.
Fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present time orientation.
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Neil Keddie (1973)
Describes cultural deprivation as a 'myth' and sees it as a victim blaming explanation. She dismisses the idea that failure at school can be blamed on a culturally deprived home background.
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What does Keddie argue?
She argues that rather than seeing working class culture as deficient, schools should recognise and build on its strengths and should challenge teachers' anti-working-class prejudices.
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Tessa Blackstone and Jo Mortimore (1994)
According to Tessa Blackstone and Jo Mortimore (1994) working class parents attend fewer parents evenings not because of a lack of interest but because they work longer or less regular hours or are put off by the school's middle class atmosphere.
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What is material deprivation?
Refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income.
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Marilyn Howard (2001)
Notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals.
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Richard Wilkinson (1996)
According to Richard Wilkinson (1996), among ten year olds, the lower the social class the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders, all of which are likely to have a negative effect on the child's education.
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Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin (2007)
Found that children from low income families were more likely to engage in 'externalising' behavior which are likely to disrupt their schooling.
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Emily Tanner et al (2003)
Found that the cost of items such as transport, uniforms, books computers, calculators and sports, music and art equipment places a heavy burden on poor families.
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Teresa Smith and Michael Noble (1995)
They add that poverty acts as a barrier to learning in other ways such as inability to afford private schooling or tuition, and poorer quality local schools.
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Claire Callender and Jon Jackson (2005)
Found that working class students are more debt adverse- that is, they saw debt negatively, as something to be avoided.
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Diane Reay (2005)
Found that working class students were more likely to apply to local universities so they could live at home and save on travel costs, but this gave them less opportunity to go to the highest status universities.
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What do Peter Mortimore and Geoff Whitty (1997) argue?
They argue that material inequalities have the greatest effect on achievement.
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What does Peter Robinson (1997) argue?
He argues that tackling child poverty would be the most effective way to boost achievement.
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What does Peter Bourdieu (1984) argue?
He argues that both cultural and material factors contribute to educational achievement and are not separate but interrelated.
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What does the term 'capital' refer to?
The term capital usually refers to wealth but in addition to this economic capital.
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Alice Sullivan (2001)
Used questionnaires to conduct a survey of 465 pupils in 4 schools. She asked them about a range of activities and whether they visit museums and art gallery's to assess their cultural capital.
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Card 2

Front

What are internal factors?

Back

These are factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions between pupils and teachers, and inequalities between schools.

Card 3

Front

What are external factors?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Hubbs-Tait et al (2002)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Leon Feinstein (2008)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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