To what extent and in what ways did Communism transform the GDR?

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When was the Yalta Conference?
4-11th February 1945
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What was decided at Yalta?
The division of Germany into four zones
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Which countries territory was largely divided between the East and West?
Poland
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What was the date of the Potsdam Conference?
July 17th - August 2nd 1945
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What did Russia and the other Allies disagree on?
Boundaries and reparations
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What were the 4 Ds?
Demilitarisation, Democratisation, Decentralisation and De-Nazification
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What percentage of British and American reparations would Russia get, and in exchange for what?
25% of reparations in exchange for goods
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When did the German military disband and when was it re-established?
May 1945 & 1955
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Why did the Soviets insist Nazism had to be destroyed?
They believed Nazism resulted from Capitalism
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How did the Soviets destroy Nazism?
Junkers were confiscated & redistributed; Confiscation of Nazi property; Relocated some equiptment and experts to Russia as reparations
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Who was Walter Ulbricht?
Led the KPD, and later the SED
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When did the KPD arrive in Berlin
April 1945
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What was the Soviet Military Administration (SMAD)?
The group which supervised occupation of the Soviet Zone
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What was 'Order No 2' and when was it issued?
It licensed the formation of political parties and was introduced on 10th June 1945
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When were all parties brought together in a National Fron against Nazism?
July 1945
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When did the SED form?
1946
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Why did the SPD distrust the KPD?
Their policies and links with the army
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When was democracy formally abandoned?
1948
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Whose property did the SED confiscate?
Absentee factory owners, Nazis, War criminals and Junkers
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Who did the SED belive were innocent?
Ordinary workers and peasants
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What did the SED ensure they controlled?
Education
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What was Marxist-Leninist?
A combination of beliefs in Marx's commitment to overthrow capitalism and Lenin's idea about the role of the party
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What was the principle of the Marxist-Leninist 'Party of a new type'?
Democratic centralism
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Why and when was the Bizonia formed?
To overcome economic problems in 1947
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When was Trizonia formed?
1949
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What was the Truman Doctrine?
US foreign policy aim to support governments fighting for 'freedom' against Communism
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What was Marshall Aid?
The plan proposed by the US General Marshall to give financial aid to nations in Europe to help rebuild their economies and stop the spread of Communism
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What resulted in the introduction of the Deutschmark in the West?
The growing black market
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What was the Soviet currency?
The East German Mark
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When was the Berlin Blockade?
24th June 1948 - 12 May 1949
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What was the short-term cause of the Berlin Blockade?
Western currency reform
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How was West Berlin supplied?
Food, medical supplies and fuel were brought by air
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What did the 'Parliamentary Council' do?
Draw up the basic law for West Germany
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When was the GDR formed?
October 1949
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Who was the GDR president?
Wilhelm Pieck
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Who was the GDR Prime Minister?
Otto Grotewohl
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When was the Stasi founded?
February 1950
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When was Lander abolished?
1952
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What were lander replaced with?
Bezirke
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What was the Stalinallee?
A prestige building project
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What did the Government propose a 10% rise in in May 1953?
Productivity and working hours
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When was the Workers' Uprising?
17th June 1953
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When did Stalin die?
5th March 1953
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Why did the uprising fail?
Poor organisation; No objectives; Non-intervention from the West
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What were the consequences of the uprising?
Increase in norms were ended; More consumer goods to be produced; Ulbricht's power was strengthened; The powers of the Stasi increased
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Why was giving land to peasants become a problem?
They were unable to farm profitably as they lacked resources and machinery
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When was collectivisation introduced?
1952
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What were LPGs?
Land Production Co-operatives
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What made agriculture more efficient?
Mechinisation and the use of tractor-lending stations
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In what year did LPGs make up 45% of the agricultural sector?
1959
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When was food rationing on basic items stopped?
1958
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Why were ore people leaving in 1961?
Rationing ad returned and productivity decreased further
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What happened to many large industies?
They were nationalised
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Where did most people work?
State-run VEBs (People's Own Factories)
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What were the problems with the Five Year Plans?
Targets ingnored consumer demands; Emphasis on quantity over quality reduced saleability; Took too long to implement; Fixed prices did not link to supply demand
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What did the 1951-55 Five Year Plan focus on?
Heavy industry
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What did the 1956-58 Five Year Plan focus on?
Modernisation and the production of consumer goods
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What did the 1951 Berlin Treaty do?
Co-ordinate trade between the East and West
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What did joining Comecon in 1950 mean?
The economy was facilitated and integrated with the Eastern Bloc
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What did the Seven Year Plan in 1959 aim to do?
Align economic development of the GDR with the Soviet Union, which brough in some consumer goods and improvement in living standards
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When was the Berlin wall erected?
1961
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What did the Berlin Wall Stabilise?
The workforce as there was less movement to the West
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When was the Seven Year Plan abandoned?
1962
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When was the 'New Economic System for Planning and Direction' (NOSPL) introduced?
1963
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What did NOSPL do?
Brought more flexibility and input from workers; allowed workers to share in profits which encouraged production; emphasised quality over quantity
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What oppertunities were there for peasants who committed themselves to the polical system?
Gained land (but were later forced to join a collective); Better machinery to work the farms; Education
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What oppertunities were there for factory workers who committed themselves to the polical system?
Education; Oppertunity to manage factories if they were loyal to the party
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What oppertunities were there for women who committed themselves to the polical system?
Many became doctors; Increased support with te provision of maternity and child care facilities to allow for part-time work or work at lower levels
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What mass organisations were established by the state to give them control over all aspects of life?
Free German Trade Union League (FDGB) for workers, controlled by the SED; Democratic Women's League of Germany; League of Culture; Society for Sport and Technology; German-Soviet Friendship Society
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What did schools become?
Polytechnic with close links to industry or sport, and provided practical work experience
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What controlled youth organisations?
SED
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What was the youth organisation for 6-14 year olds?
JP - Young Pioneers
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What was the youth organisation for 14-25 year olds?
FDJ - Free German Youth
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Were youth organisations compulsory?
No
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Why did young people join?
Out of fear of discrimination
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What did youth opposition support?
Western culture, based around rock and roll music
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Was Curch-owned land seized?
No
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Did Churches run their own internal affairs?
Yes
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When did the Churche face severe repression?
1952-53
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What did the 1946 Law for the Democratisation of German Schools remove?
Religious education from the curriculum
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What was the Protestant youth group called?
Junge Gemeinde
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Did churches receive financial support from the state?
No
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What were blocked for Christians latter on?
Carrers, promotions and education
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What was imposed on the young in 1954?
Jugendweihe - the Youth Dedication Service - an Atheist ceremony with a pledge to the state and Socialism
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Card 2

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What was decided at Yalta?

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The division of Germany into four zones

Card 3

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Which countries territory was largely divided between the East and West?

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Card 4

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What was the date of the Potsdam Conference?

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Card 5

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What did Russia and the other Allies disagree on?

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