Tissues of the Gas Exchange System

  • Created by: Aleena
  • Created on: 24-10-18 16:42
Cartilage
form of connective tissue that provides strengthening & support,made of cells surrounded by mucopolysaccharides.it is more flexible than bone
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Function of Cartilage
to keep the larger tubes open (trachea,bronchi & larger bronchioles) These tubes have a relatively large diameter & thin walls-without the strengthening of cartilage, would collapse
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Ciliated Epithelium
layer of ciliated cells -cilia beat constantly wafting the mucus out of the trachea, where it can be swallowed and removed.
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Epithelium
any layer of cells that form a covering/lining
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Goblet Cells
produce mucus that lines the trachea,bronchi and larger bronchioles. These cells are found between the ciliated cells in the epithelium
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Smooth Muscle & Elastic Fibres
maintains tone in airways & allows expansion in cases where extra oxygen is needed, Elastic fibres are found in all lung tissues- this makes lungs flexible which is needed when the lungs recoil during during expiration
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Expiration
breathing out
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Trachea
widest tube in gas exchange system,its simply a channel that allows air to reach the lungs-so must be open at all times
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Tracheal Wall
medium thickness, has cartilage rings- that form a scaffolding to keep tube open, these are distributed at intervals- so that the soft tissue in between retain flexibility.
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Why does trachea have c-shaped cartilage?
the oesphagus runs v.close behind the trachea & expands when food passes down it-could create friction between oesphagus + cartilage-so trachea have C-shaped cartilage,with the ends joined by tissue containing smooth muscle & elastic fibres
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Why is it important that there's a good layer of mucus in the trachea?
cos its the first part of the gas exchange system to encounter the air,so its best if most of the dust/bacteria are trapped by the mucus here,where they can be removed the fairly short distance up the trachea & into the oesphogus to be swallowed
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Bronchi
smaller diameter and thinner walls than trachea and have complete rings of cartilage not c-shaped as it isn't in contact with oesophagus
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Bronchioles
There are many bronchioles + vary in size/structure as they get smaller towards the alveoli.
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Why don't Bronchioles have cartilage?
although walls of bronchioles are thin, narrow tubes tend to be more self-supporting so don't need cartilage.
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large vs small bronchioles
large: have elastic fibres + smooth muscle-to adjust diameter of sirways to increase/decrease air flow small:only have elastic fibres
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Alveoli
arranged in groups at end of the smallest bronchioles, the alveolar wall consists of a single layer of epithelium + an extracellular matrix contains elastic fibres-allows expand during inspiration and recoil during expiration
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Card 2

Front

Function of Cartilage

Back

to keep the larger tubes open (trachea,bronchi & larger bronchioles) These tubes have a relatively large diameter & thin walls-without the strengthening of cartilage, would collapse

Card 3

Front

Ciliated Epithelium

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Epithelium

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Goblet Cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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