Tissues in the lungs

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 11-05-16 19:29
What must airways have/be to be effective? (5)
Large enough to allow sufficient air to flow without obstruction, divide into smaller airways to deliver air to alveoli, strong enough to prevent collapse in low pressure, flexible to allow movement, able to stretch and recoil.
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What is the difference between trachea and bronchi?
Their size - Bronchi are narrower than the trachea.
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Describe the walls of trachea and bronchi
They have relatively thick walls that have several layers of tissue.
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What does most of the wall consist of?
Cartilage in the form of incomplete C-rings in the trachea, less regular in bronchi.
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What is on the inside surface of the cartilage?
A layer of glandular tissue, connective tissue, elastic fibres, smooth muscle and blood vessels (loose tissue).
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What is the inner lining and what 2 types of cell are present here?
Inner lining is an epithelium layer with ciliated epithelium and goblet cells.
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Compare the bronchioles with the bronchi
The bronchioles are much narrower than the bronchi.
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Which bronchioles have cartilage?
The larger bronchioles may have some cartilage, but the smaller ones have none.
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What is the wall of bronchioles mostly made of?
Smooth muscle and elastic fibres.
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What do the smallest bronchioles have at their ends?
Clusters of alveoli
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What is the role of cartilage?
Structural role.
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What does cartilage prevent?
Collapse of airways when pressure is low during inhalation.
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What does cartilage support?
The trachea and bronchi, holding them open.
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What provides the flexibility?
The cartilage does not form a complete ring in the trachea which provides flexibility.
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What is the role of smooth muscle?
Can contract to constrict airways.
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What does the contraction and constriction cause?
Lumen of the airways to become narrower.
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Where is the effect of the smooth muscle most obvious?
In the bronchioles.
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What will constricting the lumen do?
Restrict the flow of air to and from the alveoli.
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What is the role of the elastic fibres?
To dilate the airway after the smooth muscle has reduced its diameter.
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What happens to the elastic fibres when the smooth muscle contracts and relaxes?
Elastic fibres are deformed when the airway constricts but recoils back to its original shape and size as the smooth muscle relaxes.
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What is the role of goblet cells and glandular tissue?
To secrete mucus
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What is the role of mucus?
To trap tiny particles from the air such as pollen and bacteria so they can be removed and risk of infection reduced.
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What is the role of ciliated epithelium?
Cilia move to waft the mucus up the airway to the back of the throat where it can be swallowed and killed in the acidic stomach.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the difference between trachea and bronchi?

Back

Their size - Bronchi are narrower than the trachea.

Card 3

Front

Describe the walls of trachea and bronchi

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does most of the wall consist of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is on the inside surface of the cartilage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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