Thomas Cromwell- Role in Goverment & his downfall

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What does Elton argue that Cromwells work created?
'Tudor revolution in goverment'- ended old medevil ways and distribured power into burecracitcally organised departments
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Where and when was Thomas Cromwell born?
1485 in puntney to a humble background
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Where did Cromwell go to live when he was a young man and what job did he do here?
Nerthlands and Italy - worked as a solider and developed radical ideas
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By 1519 why was his postion within Wolseys household important?
he worked as a key aid to him such as in the suppression of the monastries
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What was Cromwell by 1523?
a member of parliment and began practising law
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When did Cromwell become part of the kings coucil?
1531 (he was a key minister two years later)
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Who did Cromwell make enemies of as they though they were better suited to the job?
Thomas Howard and the Duke of Norfolk
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Cromwell did not see his vast offices and salsires as a chance for personal gain, what did he view it as?
as a means of getting co-ordinated, centrailsed and efficent system of goverment in England
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What did the postions and infulence he achived mean he could do?
deliver with remarkable efficiency
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What were some of Cromwells key roles?
Master of the kings jewels, role in the court of chancery, chancellor of the exchequer, lord privy seal, master of the rolls , kings principal sectrary
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How did Cromwell gain so much influence?
to an extent he was in the right place at the right time however he was a man of considerable talent and expertise and was able to work extremely hard
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What made Cromwell indispensable?
knew how to deliver what Henry VIII wanted and was aware of the consequeces of following a policy that didnt suit the king
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By 1532 he taken over the management of the kings divorce, what did allow him to devise?
The stategy and the Acts which destroyed the power if the Roman catholic church in england
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What did Cromwells main motivation seem to be?
a desire to make royal goverment more efficent
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What 3 changes did he preside over and organise in england?
1. new system of gov and the way england administered, worshipped and paid taxes 2. transformed role of parliment, mad wales conform to england and broke down the tradinal independance of the north 3. made crown financially independant from parilmen
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Why is Cromwell have said to have revolutionised pariliment?
1. the way england was adminstered, the efficency and the degree of centralisation 2. the fact that so much change happened in 8 years by one man 3. huge reilous changes were taking place 4. role of parliment was altering well
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What did Cromwell turn the small informal inner circle into?
The privy coucil
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What was the privy council?
its role was to serve the monarch and adminsitor on his behalf if nesscary such as day to day admin if the monarch was absent for any reason
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How many members did it have?
19 and a clerk to record decisons
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What did it advise matters on?
on policy rather than justice (star chamber and court of request continuing with jusdical work)
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what role did Cromwell play?
drawing up the adgenda for meetings and implementing decisions
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What did this mean he could do?
he was to able to coordinate the whold bussiness of goverment- elton considered that he had planned this development so it was a revolutionary change
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Wolsey had developed the courts associated with the council what does this mean?
Cromwell was not creating anything new, rather developing somthing that had already started
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Why did cromwell not revolutionise the privy council?
other nobility wanted a privy council so the goverment was not in the hands to a single minister- sooner or later it was going o be created cromwell was just in the right place at the right time
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What events happened that actually created the privy council?
during the 1536 pilgrimage of grace the king and cromwell at a time of danger from the rebels, had to take a backseat while the council took on a more prominant role
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How was the development of the Privy council actually halted by cromwell?
the privy coucil was dependant on his staff, so he kept control
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What happened to the council after Cromwells downfall?
it was freed from Cromwell's domination and able to emerge as an insitution with appointment of its own secretary
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Where did Royal Revenue go?
was paid to the treasurer of the chamber in cash and stored in one of the king's strong rooms
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What were the advantages of this system?
it could be closely supervised by the king and the amount of money avalible to him was clear and avalible in cash
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Why did Cromwell create organised financial departments?
partly to deal with the increased income from the reformation
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What was the office of General Surveyors?
the permenent department to handle household income
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What did the Court of Agmentations deal with?
income from confiscated monastic lands
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What did the Court of wards handle?
revune from wardship
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What was the court of First Fruits and tenths?
collection of church dues
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Where these changes revolutionary? yes and no?
Yes= Elton belives cromwell made these changes as part of his master plan No= the creation of these departments can be seen as a response to particular needs
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What role did the Privy coucil and Privy Chamber have?
Council= kept any surplus cash Chamber= administered by many of its members under kings supervison
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What did the King's secretary do?
read and summerised letters to the king and helped draft and write royal replies- he was in charge of the kings private seal which was used to authorise royal orders to goverment deparments
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When Cromwell took over this postion where did the importance lie?
in the access to the king and intimate knoledge of royal affairs
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What does Elton beilve Cromwell did to the sectary postion?
took it out of household and made it into an office of state
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What did the king often make instaed of using parliment to make laws?
proclamations (decrees when parliment was not in sessions
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What was parliment mainly used for and how was it used in 1530?
to collect taxes and to entact legislation needed to legailise the break from rome
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How did Cromwell use it in a differant way?
he needed the statue of law to strenghten the change to church and goverment
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What did this mean for parliment?
it legisaltedin areas it had previosuly not been involed in and its role changed considerbly
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After the disolution of the monastries how were the abbots affected?
no longer part of the house of lords , meaning the clergy was then in the minority
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What increased the status and importance of parliment?
creating 14 new broughs with elected mps- gentlemen and landowners began to seek election
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By the end off the 1530s what did the Statue of Law do?
made the King-IN-Parliment instaed of King-AND-parliment- had the authority in England and Wales
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What did this mean for future monarchs?
if they wanted to change laws they had to do so with the cooperation of parliment
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What happened because so many laws were passed?
procedures developed and Mps gained a level of experience- it became standard practice to pass a bill after three readings in the Lords and Commons
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What made Wales fully part of the English system of government?
The Acts of Union which reorganized local goverment
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Parts of England had Liberties (semi-independant) what stopped these?
The act against liberties and Franchises removed or restricted the special powers of regional nobles, limiting the power magnets and providing the consistent application of law
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What did the king have to do regarding the pope before the break from Rome?
had to follow the popes views on religious doctrine such as he was supposed to consult the pope before choosing bishops
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What did Cromwell's reforms of the Councils of Wales and the North?
Taxation was centralized which led in part to the pilgrimage of Grace and a new breed of efficient royal servants developed
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What did JJ. Scarisbrick Belive?
that England emerged with a new political 'wholeness' but it was attributed to a variety of things not simply Cromwell
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What were some of these other factors?
1. destruction of the independant church 2. final incorporation of Wales 3. restricting freedom of the councils of Wales and north 4. development of privy council 5. founding of 4 finical courts
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When and why was Cromwell imprisoned?
in the tower after an Act of Attainder- charged for treason and executed on the 28 june
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What were the 4 main reasons Cromwell fell from power?
1. cleves marriage 2. the howard faction 3. catholic backlash 4. Cromwell's end/Henry himself
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What was happening at the same time that the pope excommunicated Henry in 1538?
there was peace between france and the Habsburgs
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What did Henry think he needed?
A protestant friend in Germany as possible allies against a roman catholic attack
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How was Henry going to Achieve this?
by marrying Anne of Cleves (part of the protestant german royal family)
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How did Cromwell make Henry angry?
Cromwell had been misinfored about her looks and henry could not stand the sight of her
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How may have this contributed to Cromwells downfall?
this was a great embarrassment to Henry and it can be argued that he wanted to punish cromwell for this
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However, why did this not result in his downfall?
Cromwell had been very good at disposing of henrys previous wives and was awarded the Earl of Essex after the marriage fiasco
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Who had Henry become infatuated with?
Catherine Howard the Duke of Norfolk's niece whom had placed her at court
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How did Norfolk use the cleaves marriage to his advantage?
to poison Henry's mind against Cromwell
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What was Catherine told to do?
to spread rumors that Cromwell was not securing the divorce quick enough
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in his position as Vice-gerent of spirituals what did Cromwell set out?
a more protestant view of the church in the Ten Articles and encouraged the protestant minority to openly preach doctrines which were too radical for henry
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Why did this get Cromwell in trouble?
religious conservatives at court (Gardiner) reinforced henrys dislike of protestant theology?
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What was enough for Cromwell to have charges for heresy brought against him?
The Duke of Norfolk suggesting Cromwell was sheltering a group of protestants in calais
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How was Henry responsible for Cromwell's downfall?
he was more ill and had become suspicious & belived the stories of enimies of the corwn 2. cromwells disposal was rushed through before henry knew what was happening 3. embrassment by the cleaves affair had clouded his judgment
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How did Henry feel after Cromwell's death?
angry at being hoodwinked into killing his most outstanding minster and was not able to replace him
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Where and when was Thomas Cromwell born?

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1485 in puntney to a humble background

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Where did Cromwell go to live when he was a young man and what job did he do here?

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By 1519 why was his postion within Wolseys household important?

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What was Cromwell by 1523?

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