Thinking and Reasoning

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What is deductive reasoning?
Solving logical or mathematical problems that have a right answer.
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What is inductive reasoning?
Predicting the future from past data, including hypothesis testing.
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What is problem solving?
Working out how to get from A to B.
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What is judgement and decision making?
Choosing among options.
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What is creative thinking?
Day-dreaming etc.
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What did research on thinking primarily focus on (3)?
Cases where there is a right answer, there is a way of evaluating the rationality of an answer, there is a way of assessing the efficiency with which one gets there.
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What is there strong emphasis on in research on thinking?
Human imperfection.
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What was the practical motivation for this focus (3)?
To enhance awareness of the fallibility of medical/ legal/ military decision making, to remediate this with training, to allow for it in system design.
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What is "system 2" of dual-process theory of reasoning?
Slow, clunky, sequential, effortful. Rational, logical, general-purpose, concious. Constrained by limited WM capacity and other basic limitations of cognitive machinery.
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What is "system 1" of dual-process theory of reasoning?
Intuitive, automatic, unconscious, fast and frugal, quick and dirty, approximate. Domain-specific. Includes schemas, procedures, rules of thumb etc.
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What are judgements of probability/ frequency?
Some facts about frequency can be learnt. Many judgements are based on experience.
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What is the availability heuristic?
Judge an event as more probable/ frequent if more examples are available in the memory environment.
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What factors is retrievability determined by (3)?
Recency, saliency, similarity to the current case.
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What are the implications of the availability heuristic?
We tend to over-estimate probability of events of which we know examples that are easily retrievable, due to the availability bias.
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What do research situations involve when investigating problem-solving?
Situations where there is a start state and a goal state, and you have to reach the goal as quickly as possible, using a set of available operates and subject to certain constraints.
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What operators must the problem-solver search for (3)?
Ones that move them through intermediate states on a path approaching the goal, avoid dead-ends and going around in circles, minimise path length.
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How does WM capacity affect our problem-solving abilities?
It limits them, as if given a huge workspace and time, we could exhaustively enumerate all possible legal moves and pick the shortest path.
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What are the implications for limitations in cognitive capacities?
Leads to reliance on heuristics, results in intrinsic biases when we apply heuristics.
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What are mental models?
Representations of possible concrete worlds in which a set of given premises are true.
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How do we use mental models in drawing conclusions?
We generate a conclusion, or determine whether an offered conclusion is valid, by examining these mental models.
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How do errors in mental models arise (3)?
Failure to generate all possible mental models, lack of WM capacity for maintaining multiple models, if the first mental model fits we ignore other appropriate possibilities.
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Why does performance in 'if-then' problems improve with concrete, rather than abstract, concepts?
Successful conditions engage a familiar "permission" schema for social rules about what ought to happen.
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What is causal reasoning?
It is argues thy subjects' choices are rational under this interpretation, which does not have the same truth conditions as logical reasoning.
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Card 2


What is inductive reasoning?


Predicting the future from past data, including hypothesis testing.

Card 3


What is problem solving?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is judgement and decision making?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is creative thinking?


Preview of the front of card 5
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