Thinking

What are three crucial elements?
A starting goal, a goal state, a set of processes
1 of 134
What is the behaviourist approach?
They study behaviour as objective and observable, most appropriate unit of analysis is simple stimulus-response association, problem solving occurs through trial and error processes
2 of 134
What is the Gestalt approach?
Problem solving is more than reproduction of learned response, occurs through a process of restructuring and insight
3 of 134
What did Darwinargue?
The minds of humans and animals were fundamentally similar
4 of 134
What did Thorndike do?
Placed cats in a puzzle box with a clasp to hold the door shut, the door could not be opened without the cat performing a sequence of actions, Thorndike plotted the time it took for the animal to solve the problem
5 of 134
How did Thorndike's cats learn to escape?
From a puzzle box by a process of trial and error eventually pulling the correct string
6 of 134
What is the initial escape?
by chance,
7 of 134
What are future escapes?
Became progressively faster as the connection between behaviour and reward is learned
8 of 134
What was the key finding?
That problem solving was incremental rather than insightful
9 of 134
What did Kohler believe about animal intelligence?
Animal thought, especially chimps was more complex than people imagined, responses necessary in the puzzle box were unfamiliar
10 of 134
What was one of Sultan's problems to solve?
A stick that was long enough to reach the bananas
11 of 134
How was it learnt?
The result of insight rather than incremental trial and error
12 of 134
Why did a difference occur?
Thorndike's cats were hungry and distressed, Kphler's chimps were well fed and cared for and free to roam. We know that primates are closer to humans in terms of their genetic structure, social structure and share cognitive abilites
13 of 134
What were Wallas four stages of creative thinking?
Preparation, incubation, illumination and verification
14 of 134
What was the Preparation stage?
A problem is formulated and initial attempts are made to solve the proble
15 of 134
What is the incubation period?
The problem is set aside and no conscious work is done on it
16 of 134
what is the illumination period?
A sudden inspiration provides a new insight into the way in which the problem might be solved
17 of 134
What is the verification period?
Conscious work on the problem develops and tests the inspiration to provide a full solution to the problem
18 of 134
What is the cheap necklace problem?
You are given four seperate pieces of chain that are each three links in length, it costs 2p to open link and 3p to close a link,all links are closed at the beginning of the problem, your goal is to join all 12 links of chain into a single circle, 15
19 of 134
What is the results of the cheap necklace problem?
Control group: worked on problem for half an hour, 55% solved the problem
20 of 134
What about group 1?
worked for half an hour, half an hour break, 64% solved the problem
21 of 134
What about group 2?
As 1, 4 hour break - 85% solved the problem
22 of 134
What did Murray and Denny attempt to do?
find further evidence for incubation and to explore when it is necessary for problem solving
23 of 134
What were subjects?
Divided into high and low ability groups on their performance on a use of objects test
24 of 134
What happened?
Subjects were given 20 minutes to solve a complex practical problem, half the subjects had a 5 min break and half didnt
25 of 134
What did Murray et al suggest?
Incubation was only useful for problems that people find hard
26 of 134
What about for high ability?
the problem was simple the distracter task acted as a problem at hand
27 of 134
What about the low ability subjects?
The problem was relatively hard were aided by the distractor task-they required a period of incubation
28 of 134
What is functional fixedness?
People fixate one a property of the problem and cant think about it in a different way
29 of 134
What is mental set?
Learn a particular way of solving a problem which often produces success, but continue to use it even when inappropriate
30 of 134
How did Dunker support functional fixedness?
Support the candle on the wall so that it doesnt drip on the table below, subjects often tried to nail the candle to the wall, or glue the candle with wax
31 of 134
What were dunkers subjects fixated with?
the boxes normal function of holding nails - unable to reconceptualise it as a candle holder
32 of 134
What did Luchins investigate?
Functional fixedness
33 of 134
What was the problem?
The water jug problem, people may become biased by experience to prfer certain approaches, wich may block the solution, the eistellung effect
34 of 134
What was each problem?
Specifies the capactities of jugs A, B, C and a final desired quantity
35 of 134
What is the task?
use the jugs to measure out the final quantity
36 of 134
What was one condition?
Subjects received a set of problems with similar hard solution method, in another control subjects received a set of problems to be solved using simple but different methods
37 of 134
what happened next?
Subjects were given the water jug problem, set subjects persistently tried to apply to hard method that they had been applying to the previous problems they were set on using that solution and could not see the easy one
38 of 134
How did people overcome fixedness?
Draw four continuous straight lines connection all the dots without lifting your pen from the paper
39 of 134
What happened accoding to Scheerer?
Most people cant solve this because they assume in believing they must stay within the square
40 of 134
However?
Not all insight problems are instantly solved when fixedness is overcome, in the nine dots problem many subjects require more than one hint to arrive at the solution
41 of 134
What is importnt?
THe importance of recalling past experiences of problems similar to the one trying to be solved - retructuring as one works through the problem
42 of 134
What did Brown and Mcneil investigate?
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
43 of 134
What did they do and what did they find?
What is the wor for a navigational instrument used in measuring angular distances, especially the attitude of the sun, moon and stars at sea. when people claim the answer is on the tip of their tongue, they are 57% correct in knowing the FL
44 of 134
What did Metcalfe argue?
Compared feelings of knowing for general knowledge questions and feeling of warmth for insight problems
45 of 134
What did he find?
Feelings of knowing appeared to predict subsequent recognition of the answers, feelings of warmth did not predict subsequent solution
46 of 134
What is the feeling of warmth?
Can sometimes predict how close to solution you are. This seems to be the case when incremental solutions are required rather than insight solutions
47 of 134
What did Metcalfe's study show?
Allow an experimental way of measuring the phenomenon of insight
48 of 134
What is reasoning?
Logically from premises to a conclusion that if the premises are correct the conclusion is necessarily correct
49 of 134
What are common examples?
Mathematics, logic and syllogistic reasoning
50 of 134
What an easy example of deduction?
Major premise, all of the the artist are beekeepers, Minor premise: all of the beekeepers are chemists, Conclusion: all of the artists are chemists (90%)
51 of 134
What is induction?
Any process of thought yielding a conclusion that increases the semantic information in its initial observations or premises, Johnson-Laird
52 of 134
What are common examples?
Science, everyday thinking
53 of 134
REasoning about the future from the past means what?
The sun has risen every morning therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow morning
54 of 134
What is induction do>
Draws a general conclusion from specific premises
55 of 134
What was Bacon's policy/
Science is about observing nature and coming up with general laws to describe it
56 of 134
What did Russell point out?
Falsification not confirmation is useful here
57 of 134
What did Popper suggest?
Good science should involve seeking information which is incosistent with a particular hypothesis -falsification
58 of 134
What is the above information?
Hypothetic deductive
59 of 134
What is the 2-4-6 task?
pps were told 'Im thinking of a rule for generating a series of three numbers. One example of a number sequence generated by this rule would be 2-4-6. your task is to guess what my rule is
60 of 134
What possible rules are there?
1.Any three numbers ascending in twos. 2. any three even numbers in ascending order
61 of 134
What did the experimenter find?
They are trying to confirm the hypothesis rule rather than falsify it, unfortunately either could be true
62 of 134
What do subjects do?
Announce one of the incorrect hypothesis. Many subjects never discover the correct rule
63 of 134
Why does Watson suggest?
Confirmation bias, subjects spend too much time giving sequences that confirm their hypothesis instead of attemting to falsify it
64 of 134
What do scientists do?
No better than others at the 2-4-6 task. Cleryman seemed slightly more willing to abandon hypotheses
65 of 134
What does financial incentives do?
Nothing
66 of 134
What was the Watson card selection task/
There are four cards on the table. Each has a number on one side and a letter on the other
67 of 134
What is the rule?
If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the otherside
68 of 134
What did the majority choose?
A and 4 or just A
69 of 134
What is the concrete example?
'Every time i go to Manchester I go by car' 63 of pps correctly selected Machester and Train cards compared to 12% in the experiment with abstract stimuli
70 of 134
What about Griggs and Cox's research?
They did this task with American students and found no difference between the abstract and concrete version
71 of 134
In contrast what could their students do?
If a person is drinkng beer then the person must be over 19 years of age
72 of 134
What is the memory cueing?
If people can remember cases which would disconfirm the rule they are more likely to try to falsify
73 of 134
What else can facilitate performance?
A version of the task
74 of 134
For example?
IF a purchase exceeds $30, then the receipt must be approved by the department manager
75 of 134
What about Cheng and Holyoak?
They suggested that this is an example of a common realworld situation that people do have to reason about
76 of 134
What is the key thing?
you are used to this type of pragmatic reasoning
77 of 134
When can reasoning experience be gained?
The right instruction
78 of 134
What did chenge and holyoak do?
Mainipulated content and context, subjects in Hong kong and Michagan, if a letter is sealed, then it had 5d. stamp on it, if the form says entering on one side, the the other side includes cholera among the list of diseases
79 of 134
What did half of the subjects do?
given a rationale for the judgement
80 of 134
What about with no rationale?
Hong Kong subjects performed better with postal problems - all subjects improved on all tasks when the rationale was explained
81 of 134
What are syllogisms an example of?
Deductive reasoning
82 of 134
What is the Modus Ponens?
Antecedent and Consequent
83 of 134
What is the Antecedent ?
If it is sunny then cedric will miss the lecture, it is sunny
84 of 134
What is the consequent?
Therefore, cedric will miss the lecture
85 of 134
What is modus tollens?
If it is sunny then Cedric will miss the lecture, Cedric has not missed the lecture, therefore it is not sunny
86 of 134
What is the logical structure?
If P then Q, not Q therefore not P
87 of 134
What is affirmation of the consequence?
If it is sunny then Cedric will miss the lecure, Cedric is not at the lecture, therefore it is sunny
88 of 134
What is denial of the antecedent?
If it is sunny then Cedric will miss the lecture, it is not sunny, therefore, Cedric will attend the lecture
89 of 134
Pps were given a series of conditional statements?
She gets up early she will go for a run and she gets up early and asked to draw a conclusion if possible
90 of 134
What did they find?
Ps find Modus Ponenes reasoning very easy and straightforward whereas they find Modus Tollens substaintally more difficult
91 of 134
What are mental models?
We build world models based on the information in the problem and look at these models to see whether the conclusion is justified
92 of 134
When did Errors often come?
We fail to build all the possible models that could describe the information in the problem
93 of 134
What does Comprehension combine?
Two premises in a single model: some of the artists are beekeepers, All of the beekeepers are chemist
94 of 134
Therefore some of the artists are chemists?
This is consistent with the possibility that there may be other artist who are not chemists
95 of 134
How can conclusions be validated?
Searching for other models that are consistent with the premises but not with the conclusion
96 of 134
What are some characteristics of mental models?
A mental model represents one possibility capturing what is common to all the different ways in which the possibility may occur
97 of 134
What do mental models represent?
Explicitly what is true but not what is false
98 of 134
What is belief bias?
One of the commonest reasons for giving incorrect conclusions to syllogisms
99 of 134
What do we tend to do?
Select conclusions which are believable and reject conclusions which are unbelieveable
100 of 134
What is the effecT?
Particularly strong for invalid syllogisms, which are logically incorrect if they appear to be true in the real world
101 of 134
Why should believeability be more important for invalid syllogisms than valid ones?
One possibillity is that coming up with a believable model stops you generating further models which might invalidate the conclusion
102 of 134
What did Newstead et al find?
Tested this idea and found some evidence that it might be true
103 of 134
What are the real problems with normative and human reasoning?
Real problems often only include probably information not certainties?
104 of 134
What is there only?
A mathematically correct way of making the best possible decision based on parts of probability theory e.g. Bayes' theorem
105 of 134
What do these calculations provide?
Normative answers to probabilistic questions
106 of 134
Where does psychological research come from?
It has looked at situations where human reasoning is not normative
107 of 134
What did Kahneman and Tversky look at?
Systematically at some of the situations where human reasoning is biased
108 of 134
What did they propose?
These biases come about because people often use heuristics (cognitive shortcuts) to answer complex probabilistic questions
109 of 134
What did Kahneman and Tversky look at?
The likelihood of an event is evaluated by the degree to which it is representative of the major characteristics of the process or population from which it originated
110 of 134
What were the experimental demonstrations?
Judging professions from brief character descriptions
111 of 134
A box containted 100 brief descriptions of people what were they?
30 descriptions are of engineers and 70 of lawyers
112 of 134
Subjects had to draw cards out of the box and?
Read the description and guess whether the person is an engineer or lawyer
113 of 134
The conjunction or co-occurance of two events cant be what?
More likely than the probability of either event alone, also known as the conjunction fallacy
114 of 134
According to Tversky and Khaneman what did they say about fallacy?
Occurs because specific scenarios appear more likely than general ones
115 of 134
Why
This is because they are more representative of how we imagine them
116 of 134
What is the gamblers fallacy?
The mistaken belief that future losses of a coin are influenced by past evnets
117 of 134
What did Kahneman and Tversky propose?
That some sequences of events 'represent' our conception of randomness better than others
118 of 134
What does the reprendtativeness heuristic gives rise to what?
The gamblers fallacy by means of the law of small numbers
119 of 134
Why is the belief that a successful outcome is due?
After a run of bad luck, or that tails is more likely after a run of heads
120 of 134
What is the more formal version?
a series of independent trials with the same outcome will be followed by an opposite outcome sooner than expected by chance
121 of 134
Questions were asked to pps and they were asked which one would rather happen, why did ps say the wrong one?
More information available about the wrong answer largely because of media coverage. In short it is a memory effect
122 of 134
What did Combs and Slovic look at?
The availability heuristic
123 of 134
What did they research?
Actual reporting of different forms of death in newspapers. Although diseases killed 16 times as many people as accidents, the news papers reported 7 times more people dying through accidents rather than disease
124 of 134
Percentage of work on a thesis, what do individuals tend to do?
Overestimate their relative contributions to collaborative endeavours. Thus the sum of group members estimates the percentage they contributed to a joint task typically exceeds the logically allowable 100%
125 of 134
What did Tversky et al ask participants?
Which was more frequent, A word in English has K as the 1st letter, A word in english has K as the 3rd letter
126 of 134
What did they find?
69% answered incorrectly, there are twice as many words with K as the 3rd letter as there are with K as the 1st
127 of 134
What did Tversky et al argue?
Our lexicon is organised by spelling, more words beginning with K are available for retrieval
128 of 134
Under Base rate neglect, what did Tversky and Kahneman give as a problem?
A cab was involved in a hit and run accident at night, two cab companies run green and blus, 85% green and 15% blue, eye witness ran a test: correctly identified 80% of the time,
129 of 134
What did they find?
the probabilty that the taxi was blue .41 of the time, however pps often say it was a.80% of the time and many say probability was .80%
130 of 134
What do participants focus on?
Witness accuracy and neglect the base rate of cabs in the city
131 of 134
What problem did Casscells et al have?
Asked medical students the following question, if a test is too detect a disease whose prevalence is 1/1000 has a false positive rate of 5%, what is the chance that a person found to have a positive result actually has the disease?
132 of 134
What did they find
18% = 2% whereas 45% responded 95% and ignres the base rate
133 of 134
Therefore?
medical students ignore base rates for diagnosis problems. this is normally attribute to the representativeness heuristic
134 of 134

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the behaviourist approach?

Back

They study behaviour as objective and observable, most appropriate unit of analysis is simple stimulus-response association, problem solving occurs through trial and error processes

Card 3

Front

What is the Gestalt approach?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Darwinargue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Thorndike do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Thinking resources »