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What are three crucial elements?
A starting goal, a goal state, a set of processes
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What is the behaviourist approach?
They study behaviour as objective and observable, most appropriate unit of analysis is simple stimulus-response association, problem solving occurs through trial and error processes
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What is the Gestalt approach?
Problem solving is more than reproduction of learned response, occurs through a process of restructuring and insight
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What did Darwinargue?
The minds of humans and animals were fundamentally similar
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What did Thorndike do?
Placed cats in a puzzle box with a clasp to hold the door shut, the door could not be opened without the cat performing a sequence of actions, Thorndike plotted the time it took for the animal to solve the problem
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How did Thorndike's cats learn to escape?
From a puzzle box by a process of trial and error eventually pulling the correct string
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What is the initial escape?
by chance,
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What are future escapes?
Became progressively faster as the connection between behaviour and reward is learned
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What was the key finding?
That problem solving was incremental rather than insightful
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What did Kohler believe about animal intelligence?
Animal thought, especially chimps was more complex than people imagined, responses necessary in the puzzle box were unfamiliar
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What was one of Sultan's problems to solve?
A stick that was long enough to reach the bananas
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How was it learnt?
The result of insight rather than incremental trial and error
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Why did a difference occur?
Thorndike's cats were hungry and distressed, Kphler's chimps were well fed and cared for and free to roam. We know that primates are closer to humans in terms of their genetic structure, social structure and share cognitive abilites
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What were Wallas four stages of creative thinking?
Preparation, incubation, illumination and verification
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What was the Preparation stage?
A problem is formulated and initial attempts are made to solve the proble
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What is the incubation period?
The problem is set aside and no conscious work is done on it
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what is the illumination period?
A sudden inspiration provides a new insight into the way in which the problem might be solved
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What is the verification period?
Conscious work on the problem develops and tests the inspiration to provide a full solution to the problem
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What is the cheap necklace problem?
You are given four seperate pieces of chain that are each three links in length, it costs 2p to open link and 3p to close a link,all links are closed at the beginning of the problem, your goal is to join all 12 links of chain into a single circle, 15
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What is the results of the cheap necklace problem?
Control group: worked on problem for half an hour, 55% solved the problem
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What about group 1?
worked for half an hour, half an hour break, 64% solved the problem
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What about group 2?
As 1, 4 hour break - 85% solved the problem
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What did Murray and Denny attempt to do?
find further evidence for incubation and to explore when it is necessary for problem solving
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What were subjects?
Divided into high and low ability groups on their performance on a use of objects test
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What happened?
Subjects were given 20 minutes to solve a complex practical problem, half the subjects had a 5 min break and half didnt
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What did Murray et al suggest?
Incubation was only useful for problems that people find hard
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What about for high ability?
the problem was simple the distracter task acted as a problem at hand
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What about the low ability subjects?
The problem was relatively hard were aided by the distractor task-they required a period of incubation
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What is functional fixedness?
People fixate one a property of the problem and cant think about it in a different way
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What is mental set?
Learn a particular way of solving a problem which often produces success, but continue to use it even when inappropriate
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How did Dunker support functional fixedness?
Support the candle on the wall so that it doesnt drip on the table below, subjects often tried to nail the candle to the wall, or glue the candle with wax
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What were dunkers subjects fixated with?
the boxes normal function of holding nails - unable to reconceptualise it as a candle holder
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What did Luchins investigate?
Functional fixedness
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What was the problem?
The water jug problem, people may become biased by experience to prfer certain approaches, wich may block the solution, the eistellung effect
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What was each problem?
Specifies the capactities of jugs A, B, C and a final desired quantity
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What is the task?
use the jugs to measure out the final quantity
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What was one condition?
Subjects received a set of problems with similar hard solution method, in another control subjects received a set of problems to be solved using simple but different methods
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what happened next?
Subjects were given the water jug problem, set subjects persistently tried to apply to hard method that they had been applying to the previous problems they were set on using that solution and could not see the easy one
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How did people overcome fixedness?
Draw four continuous straight lines connection all the dots without lifting your pen from the paper
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What happened accoding to Scheerer?
Most people cant solve this because they assume in believing they must stay within the square
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Not all insight problems are instantly solved when fixedness is overcome, in the nine dots problem many subjects require more than one hint to arrive at the solution
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What is importnt?
THe importance of recalling past experiences of problems similar to the one trying to be solved - retructuring as one works through the problem
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What did Brown and Mcneil investigate?
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
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What did they do and what did they find?
What is the wor for a navigational instrument used in measuring angular distances, especially the attitude of the sun, moon and stars at sea. when people claim the answer is on the tip of their tongue, they are 57% correct in knowing the FL
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What did Metcalfe argue?
Compared feelings of knowing for general knowledge questions and feeling of warmth for insight problems
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What did he find?
Feelings of knowing appeared to predict subsequent recognition of the answers, feelings of warmth did not predict subsequent solution
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What is the feeling of warmth?
Can sometimes predict how close to solution you are. This seems to be the case when incremental solutions are required rather than insight solutions
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What did Metcalfe's study show?
Allow an experimental way of measuring the phenomenon of insight
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What is reasoning?
Logically from premises to a conclusion that if the premises are correct the conclusion is necessarily correct
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What are common examples?
Mathematics, logic and syllogistic reasoning
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What an easy example of deduction?
Major premise, all of the the artist are beekeepers, Minor premise: all of the beekeepers are chemists, Conclusion: all of the artists are chemists (90%)
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What is induction?
Any process of thought yielding a conclusion that increases the semantic information in its initial observations or premises, Johnson-Laird
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What are common examples?
Science, everyday thinking
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REasoning about the future from the past means what?
The sun has risen every morning therefore, the sun will rise tomorrow morning
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What is induction do>
Draws a general conclusion from specific premises
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What was Bacon's policy/
Science is about observing nature and coming up with general laws to describe it
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What did Russell point out?
Falsification not confirmation is useful here
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What did Popper suggest?
Good science should involve seeking information which is incosistent with a particular hypothesis -falsification
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What is the above information?
Hypothetic deductive
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What is the 2-4-6 task?
pps were told 'Im thinking of a rule for generating a series of three numbers. One example of a number sequence generated by this rule would be 2-4-6. your task is to guess what my rule is
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What possible rules are there?
1.Any three numbers ascending in twos. 2. any three even numbers in ascending order
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What did the experimenter find?
They are trying to confirm the hypothesis rule rather than falsify it, unfortunately either could be true
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What do subjects do?
Announce one of the incorrect hypothesis. Many subjects never discover the correct rule
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Why does Watson suggest?
Confirmation bias, subjects spend too much time giving sequences that confirm their hypothesis instead of attemting to falsify it
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What do scientists do?
No better than others at the 2-4-6 task. Cleryman seemed slightly more willing to abandon hypotheses
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What does financial incentives do?
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What was the Watson card selection task/
There are four cards on the table. Each has a number on one side and a letter on the other
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What is the rule?
If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the otherside
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What did the majority choose?
A and 4 or just A
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What is the concrete example?
'Every time i go to Manchester I go by car' 63 of pps correctly selected Machester and Train cards compared to 12% in the experiment with abstract stimuli
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What about Griggs and Cox's research?
They did this task with American students and found no difference between the abstract and concrete version
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In contrast what could their students do?
If a person is drinkng beer then the person must be over 19 years of age
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What is the memory cueing?
If people can remember cases which would disconfirm the rule they are more likely to try to falsify
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What else can facilitate performance?
A version of the task
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For example?
IF a purchase exceeds $30, then the receipt must be approved by the department manager
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What about Cheng and Holyoak?
They suggested that this is an example of a common realworld situation that people do have to reason about
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What is the key thing?
you are used to this type of pragmatic reasoning
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When can reasoning experience be gained?
The right instruction
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What did chenge and holyoak do?
Mainipulated content and context, subjects in Hong kong and Michagan, if a letter is sealed, then it had 5d. stamp on it, if the form says entering on one side, the the other side includes cholera among the list of diseases
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What did half of the subjects do?
given a rationale for the judgement
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What about with no rationale?
Hong Kong subjects performed better with postal problems - all subjects improved on all tasks when the rationale was explained
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What are syllogisms an example of?
Deductive reasoning
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What is the Modus Ponens?
Antecedent and Consequent
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What is the Antecedent ?
If it is sunny then cedric will miss the lecture, it is sunny
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What is the consequent?
Therefore, cedric will miss the lecture
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What is modus tollens?
If it is sunny then Cedric will miss the lecture, Cedric has not missed the lecture, therefore it is not sunny
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What is the logical structure?
If P then Q, not Q therefore not P
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What is affirmation of the consequence?
If it is sunny then Cedric will miss the lecure, Cedric is not at the lecture, therefore it is sunny
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What is denial of the antecedent?
If it is sunny then Cedric will miss the lecture, it is not sunny, therefore, Cedric will attend the lecture
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Pps were given a series of conditional statements?
She gets up early she will go for a run and she gets up early and asked to draw a conclusion if possible
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What did they find?
Ps find Modus Ponenes reasoning very easy and straightforward whereas they find Modus Tollens substaintally more difficult
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What are mental models?
We build world models based on the information in the problem and look at these models to see whether the conclusion is justified
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When did Errors often come?
We fail to build all the possible models that could describe the information in the problem
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What does Comprehension combine?
Two premises in a single model: some of the artists are beekeepers, All of the beekeepers are chemist
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Therefore some of the artists are chemists?
This is consistent with the possibility that there may be other artist who are not chemists
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How can conclusions be validated?
Searching for other models that are consistent with the premises but not with the conclusion
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What are some characteristics of mental models?
A mental model represents one possibility capturing what is common to all the different ways in which the possibility may occur
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What do mental models represent?
Explicitly what is true but not what is false
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What is belief bias?
One of the commonest reasons for giving incorrect conclusions to syllogisms
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What do we tend to do?
Select conclusions which are believable and reject conclusions which are unbelieveable
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What is the effecT?
Particularly strong for invalid syllogisms, which are logically incorrect if they appear to be true in the real world
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Why should believeability be more important for invalid syllogisms than valid ones?
One possibillity is that coming up with a believable model stops you generating further models which might invalidate the conclusion
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What did Newstead et al find?
Tested this idea and found some evidence that it might be true
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What are the real problems with normative and human reasoning?
Real problems often only include probably information not certainties?
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What is there only?
A mathematically correct way of making the best possible decision based on parts of probability theory e.g. Bayes' theorem
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What do these calculations provide?
Normative answers to probabilistic questions
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Where does psychological research come from?
It has looked at situations where human reasoning is not normative
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What did Kahneman and Tversky look at?
Systematically at some of the situations where human reasoning is biased
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What did they propose?
These biases come about because people often use heuristics (cognitive shortcuts) to answer complex probabilistic questions
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What did Kahneman and Tversky look at?
The likelihood of an event is evaluated by the degree to which it is representative of the major characteristics of the process or population from which it originated
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What were the experimental demonstrations?
Judging professions from brief character descriptions
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A box containted 100 brief descriptions of people what were they?
30 descriptions are of engineers and 70 of lawyers
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Subjects had to draw cards out of the box and?
Read the description and guess whether the person is an engineer or lawyer
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The conjunction or co-occurance of two events cant be what?
More likely than the probability of either event alone, also known as the conjunction fallacy
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According to Tversky and Khaneman what did they say about fallacy?
Occurs because specific scenarios appear more likely than general ones
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This is because they are more representative of how we imagine them
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What is the gamblers fallacy?
The mistaken belief that future losses of a coin are influenced by past evnets
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What did Kahneman and Tversky propose?
That some sequences of events 'represent' our conception of randomness better than others
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What does the reprendtativeness heuristic gives rise to what?
The gamblers fallacy by means of the law of small numbers
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Why is the belief that a successful outcome is due?
After a run of bad luck, or that tails is more likely after a run of heads
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What is the more formal version?
a series of independent trials with the same outcome will be followed by an opposite outcome sooner than expected by chance
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Questions were asked to pps and they were asked which one would rather happen, why did ps say the wrong one?
More information available about the wrong answer largely because of media coverage. In short it is a memory effect
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What did Combs and Slovic look at?
The availability heuristic
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What did they research?
Actual reporting of different forms of death in newspapers. Although diseases killed 16 times as many people as accidents, the news papers reported 7 times more people dying through accidents rather than disease
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Percentage of work on a thesis, what do individuals tend to do?
Overestimate their relative contributions to collaborative endeavours. Thus the sum of group members estimates the percentage they contributed to a joint task typically exceeds the logically allowable 100%
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What did Tversky et al ask participants?
Which was more frequent, A word in English has K as the 1st letter, A word in english has K as the 3rd letter
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What did they find?
69% answered incorrectly, there are twice as many words with K as the 3rd letter as there are with K as the 1st
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What did Tversky et al argue?
Our lexicon is organised by spelling, more words beginning with K are available for retrieval
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Under Base rate neglect, what did Tversky and Kahneman give as a problem?
A cab was involved in a hit and run accident at night, two cab companies run green and blus, 85% green and 15% blue, eye witness ran a test: correctly identified 80% of the time,
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What did they find?
the probabilty that the taxi was blue .41 of the time, however pps often say it was a.80% of the time and many say probability was .80%
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What do participants focus on?
Witness accuracy and neglect the base rate of cabs in the city
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What problem did Casscells et al have?
Asked medical students the following question, if a test is too detect a disease whose prevalence is 1/1000 has a false positive rate of 5%, what is the chance that a person found to have a positive result actually has the disease?
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What did they find
18% = 2% whereas 45% responded 95% and ignres the base rate
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medical students ignore base rates for diagnosis problems. this is normally attribute to the representativeness heuristic
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Card 2


What is the behaviourist approach?


They study behaviour as objective and observable, most appropriate unit of analysis is simple stimulus-response association, problem solving occurs through trial and error processes

Card 3


What is the Gestalt approach?


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What did Darwinargue?


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Card 5


What did Thorndike do?


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