Therapies for Schizophrenia

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What are the two types of therapies for schizophrenia?
Biological and psychological.
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What are the two types of biological therapies?
ECT and antipsychotics
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What are the two types of psychological therapies?
CBT and psychodynamic therapies
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How effective is ECT?
Combination of medication and ECT is effective for rapid reduction of symptoms.
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What did the APA study find?
No difference between effects of antipsychotic medication and ECT
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What did Sarita et al (1998) find?
No difference in symptom reduction between ECT and simulated ECT
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Why has use of ECT declined?
Because of risks of memory dysfunction and brain damage.
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What did Tharyan and Adams (2005) find?
Review of 26 studies found 'real ECT more effective than 'sham' ECT
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What do conventional antipsychotics do?
Reduce effects of dopamine and so reduce symptoms of schizophrenia
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How do they do this?
They bind to D2 receptors but do not stimulate them
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How do atypical antipsychotics work?
Temporarily occupy D2 receptors then dissociate to allow normal dopamine transmission
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What does this lead to?
Lower levels of side effects, eg, tardive dyskinesia
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What did Davis et al (1980) find?
Higher relapse rate in patients whose drug was replaced with a placebo than those who remained on the drug
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Who was antipsychotic medication more effective for?
People living with hostility and criticism
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What is a side effect of conventional antipsychotics?
30% develop tardive dyskinesia
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What does being prescribed medication do?
Creates motivational deficits which prevents positive action against illness
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What did Leucht et al's (1999) meta-analysis find?
Superiority of atypical over conventional antipsychotics was only moderate
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What did Jeste et al (1999) find?
Lower rates of tardive dyskinesia with atypical antipsychotics was supported
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When are patients more likely to continue with medication?
When there are fewer side effects
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What did Ross and Read (2004) find?
Placebo studies are not a fair test because proportion of relapses can be explained by withdrawal effects
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What is an ethical issue with this research?
Human rights issues associated with the use of antipsychotic medication
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How does CBT work?
Patients 1) trace origins of symptoms and 2) evaluate the content of delusions/hallucinations
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What are patients allowed to do as part of CBT?
Create alternatives to maladaptive beliefs
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What have outcome studies shown?
That patients receiving CBT experience fewer hallucinations and delusions than those receiving antipsychotic medication alone
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There are lower patient drop-out rates and greater patient satisfaction with CBT than antipsychotic medication: True or false?
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What have meta-analyses found about the effectiveness of CBT?
There was a significant decrease in positive symptoms after CBT treatment
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What do most CBT studies also involve that make it difficult to assess the effects of CBT alone?
Antipsychotic medication
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How does CBT work?
By generating less distressing explanations for psychotic experiences rather than trying to eliminate them
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What ethical issues arose in placebo conditions?
Patients are denied effective treatment
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Card 2


What are the two types of biological therapies?


ECT and antipsychotics

Card 3


What are the two types of psychological therapies?


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Card 4


How effective is ECT?


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Card 5


What did the APA study find?


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