Theory of Evolution

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What is meant by 'Evolution'?
The idea that organisms have developed from simple life forms and have evolved over time.
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What is the main difference between Lamarck's theory of evolution and Darwin's theory?
Lamarck suggested that characteristics which developed during the lifetime of the organism could be passed on. Darwin said that organisms with the best characteristics survived to breed and the offspring inherited the characteristics.
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Why did it take so long for Darwin's theory to be accepted?
Scientists did not have enough evidence and they did not know about genes. Some people believed that God made all the plants and animals to look as they did.
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Why is it that only some members of a population survive to breed?
Organisms compete for things such as food or light. If an organism is well adapted to its environment iit will survive. Poorly adapted ones die before they breed.
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Why is there variation between members of the same species?
If the offspring are produced by sexual reproduction then the genes of both parents are inherited in different combinations when the gametes fuse.
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What is meant by the term 'survival of the fittest'?
Those that are best suited to their environment live long enough to breed. The weaker ones may die before they breed.
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What is meant by 'natural selection'?
Organisms which are best adapted to their environment survive, breed and pass on their genes to the next generation.
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What is meant by the term 'species'?
Species are organisms which look very similar to each other and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Suggest three factors that could change in a habitat area, causing problems for the organisms living there.
Three of: The climate may change - it could get hotter, colder, wetter or drier. A new predator might move into the area. A new disease may spread and affect the population. A new competitor for the food supply may move into the area. Habitats lost.
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What are evolutionary trees?
They are models that can be drawn to show the relationships between different groups of organisms.
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Why do biologists draw evolutionary trees?
Evolutionary trees show the relationships between organisms and whether they had common ancestors.
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What are the main kingdoms of living organisms?
Animals, plants and microorganisms.
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How long ago did life begin on Earth?
About 3 billion years ago.
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What name is given to Darwin's theory of evolution?
Evolution by natural selection.
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What birds did Darwin observe to find evidence for evolution?
Finches on the Galapagos Islands.
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Why do organisms show a wide range of variation?
Variation is due to differences in their genes.
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Why are mutated genes sometimes an advantage?
If the environment changes the gene may control a characteristic which makes the organism better adapted to the conditions.
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Card 2

Front

What is the main difference between Lamarck's theory of evolution and Darwin's theory?

Back

Lamarck suggested that characteristics which developed during the lifetime of the organism could be passed on. Darwin said that organisms with the best characteristics survived to breed and the offspring inherited the characteristics.

Card 3

Front

Why did it take so long for Darwin's theory to be accepted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is it that only some members of a population survive to breed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is there variation between members of the same species?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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