Theory- LT4 Feminism

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What type of theory is feminism?
Conflict,
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What kind of argments do they provide?
Structural arguments,
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How do liberal feminists see change occuring in society?
Changes in socialisation and culture are gradually leading to more rational attitudes to gender,
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How do radical feminists see change occuring in society?
Personal and sexual relationships must be transformed through collective action, living apart from men or becoming a lesbian,
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What idea is feminism based on?
Conflict,
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Who do feminists argue there is conflict between?
Men and women,
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Why do feminists believe there is conflict between men and women?
Due to society being patriarchal and male dominated, leading women to be in a subordinate position to men,
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What is the main concern of feminists in society?
To look at gender relations in society,
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What are feminists views on sociology?
That is has been traditionally malestream and therefore ignored the role of women,
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What are the four branches of feminism?
-Liberal, -Marxist, -Radical, -Postmodern,
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For Liberal feminits, what do they say there are inequalities with?
They see inequalities in opportunities for women,
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What process do liberal feminists suggests creates these inequalities and why?
THe socialisation process which creates and reinforces traditional gender roles,
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What do Liberal feminsits belive will change these inequalities?
Legislation to create more equal opportuinities in society,
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What do therefore they argue subordination is the product of?
Stereotyping and outdated attitudes,
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For Marxist feminists, how do they believe women are oppressed?
Through an unequal class and gender system,
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Therefore, what do they argue women's marginalisd position is bound up with?
Their role in reinforcing a capitalist class system,
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What do they therefore argue causes subordination?
Capitalism,
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For Radical feminists, what do they argue causes women's marginalisation?
The oppressive nature of patriarchy,
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WHat is one of the main concerns of radical feminists?
Is that men oppress and control women,
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What do radical feminists argue women are reduced to, and what evidence is there?
-Reduce them to sexual objects, -Seen in the 'sex industry',
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For post-modern feminism, what do they recognise about the post-modern day?
Recognises that fundamental shifts have occured in the position of women in post-modern times,
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Give an example of these changes?
A larger number of women are in paid emplyment,
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What Po-Mo sociologist talks about the 'myth of patriarchy'? What is it?
-Hakim, -Modernist feminists often exaggerate their views to prove their point,
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Give an example of Hakim's argument with motherhood?
Many of the conditions women find themselves in such as motherhood are through choice,
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What postmodern feminists puts forward what theory?
-Walby, -'Triple systems theory',
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What is the 'triple systems theory' and why?
The need to examine capitalism, patriarchy and racism and how they all connect to create a complex set of structures,
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What does capitlaism, patriarhcy and racism influence?
Female identities, status and their position in the Po-Mo society,
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What do all three complicate about females?
What it means to be female and all must be combined to understand how females are affected,
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For applications of feminism in education, what inequalities do liberal feminists account for?
Historical inequalities in educational achievement and subject choice in terms of traditional gender patterns of socialisation,
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What do they attribute such gender differences to in education?
Social processes operating inside of schools such as teacher expectations,
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What do Post-modern feminists take into account about changes in education?
They take into account the rise in female educational achievement in terms of changing emplyment markers and educational policies adiging women,
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For the family, how do feminists view it for women?
They see the family as exploitative and oppressive fro women,
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Why do they see the family as a 'patriarchal unit'?
As the men are dominant and relationships are unequal,
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What does this unequal power lead to?
Physical, mental and sexual abuse of women,
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For religion, how do radical feminists view religion?
As an instrument of domination and oppression, and is a product of patriarchy,
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Give an example of this through key roles in religion and examples?
Women have been and continue to be excluded from key roles in many religions e.g. Archbishop and the Pople are male,
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For crime, what link do liberal feminists create between women and crime?
WOmen are less likely to commit crime than men,
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Why do Liberal feminists believe women are less likely to commit crime?
As they are less likely to be socialised into values such as aggression,
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What sociologists suggests that where do men exert power and social control over women?
-Heidensohn, -In both the private sphere and public sphere,
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Why do many women find themselves confined to the home and how does this link to crime?
To carry out domestic and childcare tasks, -Have limited chances to engage in street crime or white collar crime,
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How do Post-modern feminists account for rises in female crime?
In terms of shifting gender roles and poverty experienced by many women,
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For links to research methods, what thinking does feminism offer?
Structural/ positivist thinking,
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Give an example of how they provide positivist thinking?
They explain how structures shape and determine women's lives,
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However, what method do they favour and examples?
Interpretivist e.g. informal interviews,
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Give an example of an informal interview?
Dobash and Dobash's Study of Domestic Violence,
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How has given feminism wider theoretical appeal?
Marxists,
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How do Feminists and Marxists think in a similar way?
AS both recognise the structures in society, -Both recognise there are conflicts between groups,
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However, what do marxists criticise feminists for?
Marxists believe more important conflict occurs between the bourgeoisie and proletariart whereas feminists concentrate mainly on male and female conflict,
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What is another advantage of feminism based on branches?
Feminism isn't just one theory but has a number of braches, all of which have particular strengths,
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For example, what do marxist Feminists illustrate a link between?
Socials class and gender,
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For example, what do radical feminist expose?
The exploitation of women through patriarchy and has had a major influence on the emancipation of women,
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Therefore this is less what than other theories?
Slightly less reductionist,
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What is another advantage basedd on interpretivist methodology?
Their empirical findings are high in validity,
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Give an example with Dobash and Dobash?
Dobash and Dobash's research into domestic violence used unstructured interviews and gave them a valid insight into the experiences of abused women,
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For criticisms of feminism, what can it be criticised for?
Being ideological and buased,
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Why can feminists be seen as biased due to patriarchy?
By focusing on patriarchy, feminists ignore the fact that these men are also used for domestic labour and that women are increasingly independent,
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What is criticism based on early feminist theories?
Early feminist theories can be criticised as they only offer a partial explanation of women's experiences in modern society,
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Why can their explanation be seen as partial?
AS they focus on the dynamic of gender and ignore other important social dimensions such as class ethnicity,
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What is a criticism of femninist methodology and why?
-Low in relaibility, -As it is grounded in small scale, qualitative and subjective approach, making results of their studies difficult to generalise,
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WHy can liberal feminists be criticised?
For being too optimisitc,
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Why can liberal feminists be criticised for being too optimsitic?
They see obstacles to emancipation as simply the prejudices of individuals or irrational laws that can be gradually reformed,
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Therefore, what possibilities do they ignore?
That there are deep seated structures causing women's oppression,
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What is a criticism of Marxist feminists?
They fail to explain women's subordination in non-capitalist socieites,
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As sub-rodination can be found in non-capitalist socieitirs, it can't be explained away how?
It can't be explained soley in terms of the needs of capitalism,
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Although, in their defence, what are Marxist feminist only seeking to explain?
The positions of women in contemporary capitalist society,
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Why are radical feminists criticised for assuming what?
They assume that all women are in the same positions,
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What to radical feminists ignore?
Class and ethnic differences between women,
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Give an example of why radical feminist explanation might be inadequate?
Middle class women may have more in common with a middle class man than with a working class woman,
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What kind of argments do they provide?

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Structural arguments,

Card 3

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How do liberal feminists see change occuring in society?

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Card 4

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How do radical feminists see change occuring in society?

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Card 5

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What idea is feminism based on?

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