Theory- LT3 Neo Marxism

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 18-04-16 20:00
What type of theory is neo-Marxists?
Conflict
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What type of arguments do neo-Marxists provide?
Structural arguments,
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Does it provide a macro or micro view?
Macro
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How do they describe change in society?
Through a revolution,
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How has Neo-marxism developed?
Neo-marxists are sociologists whose work has been inspired by Marx's theories but have developed a distinctive approach of their own.
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Who developed the concept of hegemony?
Gramsci
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How did Gramsci criticise Marxist theories?
He thought Marx was mistaken in giving such over-riding importance to the economy,
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What instead does Gramsci believe about the superstructure?
Gramsci believed the super-structure had relative autonomy,
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What does relative autonomy of the superstructure mean?
This means that they are not completely dominated by the economy, but are independent structures that have their own power over the working classes,
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How did Gramsci describe what the concept of hegemony is?
Gramsci states the ruling class have dominance over all learnt norms and values,
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What does Gramsci suggest this explains about revolutions and capitalism?
It explains why the working class was not a major revolutionary force, and why capitalism works so well,
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What hegemony does the ruling class have, and what does this mena?
-Cultural hegemony, -THeir ideas and values dominate society and the working class,
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Give an example of cultural hegemony from the ruling class?
The ruling class uses ideas and values to persuade subordinate classes that its rule is legitimate,
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For society to be fair what is needed and what will it do?
-An intellectual group, -IT educates the working classes to enable them to challenge the dominant cultural hegemony of the capitalist ruling class,
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What does the proletariat must develop and why?
A 'counter hegemony' to win leadership of society from the bourgeoisie,
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Who is the other neo-Marxist?
Althusser
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How did Althusser try to eleborate Marxism?
By arguing that the structure of capitalist society is best thought through three levels,
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What did Althusser argue are the 3 levels?
-Political (RSA), -Ideogical (ISA), -Economic,
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What does Althusser describe about the effect of each level on each other?
Each level interrelaes and influences each other, no level is dominant,
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What state does each level exist in and what does this mean?
-Relative autonomy', -This means that the economy doesn't determine everything else in society as Classic Marxists would believe,
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Although the different levels are linked, what do they have?
A degree of freedom or autonomy,
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What functions do the ideological and political levels perform and an example?
-Perform indipensable functions, -E.g. For Capitalism to continie, future workers must be socialised, workers who rebel must be punished,
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For applications of Marxism with crime, how do they view working class crime?
As a form of political action and resistance to ruling class operation,
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What is the form of ruling class oppression?
In the form of police racism and harassment,
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What is crime used to reassert?
The dominance of ruling class hegemony,
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What does the media exaggerate?
It exaggerates the problem of working class crime,
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What does the media create about working class crime?
Creates moral panics which is a way of demanding that something is done to control the working class,
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For applications of Functionalism with religion, what does Madro agree with about Marxism?
Agrees that in a majority of cases the church backed up the ruling class,
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However, what did Manduro suggest about religion?
In a very poor South American countries the Church was the only outlet for the peasant population,
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What theology did this develop and what does this mean?
-Development of 'Liberation Theology', -The belief that relion can free thr poor from their chains and promote revolution,
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For links to research methods, what did Althusser believe he was developing?
A scienific analyssi of society to help bring about progress to a better society,
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However, what did his structuralist Marxism have a major influence and why is this ironic?
Theories such as Postmodernism that rejects the very idea that scientific knowledge can be used to improve society,
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For strengths of Neo-Marxism, what is an advantage based on classic Marxists?
Neo-Marxists look further than classical Marxists and do not only focus on the importance of the economy,
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What do Neo-Marxists recognise about inequalities?
They also recognise other inequalities that exist in society,
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Give an example about neo marxists recognising what other inequalities and in terms of what?
They account for crime amongst the working class and blacks in terms of inequality, individual meanings, policing strategy and the effects of labelling,
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For another strength, what do other sociologists working with a Marxist framework stress about?
The role of ideas and consciousness as the basis for resisting dominationand changing society,
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Give an example with Willis?
Willis describes the working class lads he studied as 'pratially penetrating' bourgeois ideology- seeing through the school's ideology to recognise meritocracy as a myth,
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Who supports Althusser's arguments and why?
-Craib, -'Offers the most sophisticated conception of social structure available in the socl sciences',
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Why do Classic Marxists criticise Neo-Marxists?
For having a more 'socail action' approach to society than structuralist,
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Therefore give an example of another perspective that neo-marxists draw on and what do they emphasise?
-Interactionism, -Emphasise the role of ideas and meanings as the basis for action,
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For another weakness, what some classic Marxists crticise about the newness of neo-Marxism and why?
-They aren't particularly new, -This is because Marx himself recognised the importance of cultural institutions in creatin false class consciousness,
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For another criticism, What is Gramsci accused of over-emphasising?
Gramsci is accused of over-emphasising the role of ideas,
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What is Gramsci under-emphasising?
The role of both state coercion and economic factors,
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For another criticism, although Althusser rejects what, what does he simply replace it with?
-Rejects economic determinism, -He simply replaces it with a more complex 'structal determinism',
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What is 'structural determinism' and what does this show about free will?
-When everything is determined by the three structures and their interrelationships, therefore still suggesting no human free will,
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For the conclusion, what does Neo-Marxism provide a useful insight for?
The workings of society
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However, what is the theory driven by?
It is ideologically driven,
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Therefore why is the theory is reductionist?
It fails to take into account competing theoretical ideas,
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Why are postmoderists crtical of neo-Marxism?
As it is a meta-narrative that claims to have a 'totalising' theory os society
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What do Postmodernists maintain about rival narratives?
They should be considered for a full account of social life,
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What type of arguments do neo-Marxists provide?

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Structural arguments,

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Does it provide a macro or micro view?

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How do they describe change in society?

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How has Neo-marxism developed?

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