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Muriel Schulz 1975
all words used in association with women tend to become derorgatory.
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Hines 1994
terms of address for women as metaphors for deserts.
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Sara Mills 1995
lexical pairs where the male term suggests a positive attribute while the female term suggests a negative one.
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Keith and Shuttleworth 1999
women- talk more, polite, indecisive, complain, ask questions, supportive and are coopertive. Men- swear, talk about women and machines similarly, dont discuss emotions, insult, interrupt, competitive and give commands.
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Lakoff 1975
female speech comes from a lack of power and assertiveess.- hedges, polite, tag questions, empty adjectives, correct grammer, direct quotation, speak less, apologise, modal constructions, indirect commands, intensifiers and lack of humour.
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Coates 1995
women mirror, balance and echo each other as they share experiences, social questions and personal issues.
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O'barr and Atkins 1980
language differences are situation-specific relying on who has the power in a conversation.
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Janet Holmes 1992
Tag questions function as a device to maintain discussion or to be polite.
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Trudgill 1974
men tend to use a more non-standard pronounciation, men under-report and women over-report.
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Jenny Chesire 1982
teenagers- boys use non-standard forms more than girls do.
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Holmes 2000
masculine characteristics are seen as the way to be a successful manager in the workplace. direct, agressive,dominates talking time, interrupts, task-orientated.
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Kuiper 1991
men use insults to express solidarity.
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Anderson and Trudgill 1990
'****' is. used in auxillary swearing and usually not aimed at someone directly.
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Dooling 1996
women react differently to swearing. a woman would file a formal complaint while a male would tell hi harrasser to '**** himself'
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Tannen 1994
women are more likely to mitigate criticisms than men and save face for their subordinates.
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Woods 1989
male subordinates dominated by holding the floor, inerupting frequently, giving less assent to women speakers, gender overides power in the workplace.
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Zimmerman and West 1975
same sex exchanges- intruptions evenly distributed. mixed sex interactions- 96% of interuptions are from men.
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Labov 1972
female assistants used more standard forms in the more presigious department stores. All speakers when asked to repeat themselves used more standard forms.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

terms of address for women as metaphors for deserts.

Back

Hines 1994

Card 3

Front

lexical pairs where the male term suggests a positive attribute while the female term suggests a negative one.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

women- talk more, polite, indecisive, complain, ask questions, supportive and are coopertive. Men- swear, talk about women and machines similarly, dont discuss emotions, insult, interrupt, competitive and give commands.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

female speech comes from a lack of power and assertiveess.- hedges, polite, tag questions, empty adjectives, correct grammer, direct quotation, speak less, apologise, modal constructions, indirect commands, intensifiers and lack of humour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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