Theorists

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  • Created on: 08-06-14 16:07
Bulmers and Katz Uses and Gratifications Theory
Audiences use the media for different reasons: Escape; Entertainment; Education/Information; Social Interaction; Indentification
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Richard Dyer's Utopian Solutions Theory
The audience use the media to experience a perfection they don't get from their real lives. He believes media solves the audiences problems: Isolation - Social Interaction; Confusion - Clarity; Boredom - Excitement
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Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
Theory that suggests the main needs every human has: Self-Actualization - creativity, problem solving, lack of prejudice' acceptance of facts; Esteem - Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect
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Hierarchy Of Needs (2)
Love/Belonging - Friends, family, intimacy; Safety - confidence in body, employment, morality, health; Psychological - Breath, Food, water, homeostasis
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Young and Rubicam's Audience Classification System
This advertising agency suggests audiences can be classified by personality: Explorer - Needs new experiences and likes discovery; Aspirer - materialistic, worries about superficial qualities; Succeeder - Enjoys control and prestige brands
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Audience Classification (2)
Reformer - Anti-materialistic and intellectual; Mainstream - enjoys family values, and value for money. Enjoys security; Struggler - enjoys junk food/alcohol/gambling and need to escape life; Resigned - enjoys tradition, nostalgia
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Claude Levi Strauss's theory of Binary Opposites
A good story revolves around conflict between binary opposites (Good/Evil, Young/Old, Prisoner/Convict)
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Todorov's Narrative Structure
All stories follow similar structure: Equilibrium, Disruption, Battle for resolution, New Equilibrium
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Propp's Character Theory
All stories follow similar character types to develop a specific narrative so the audience understand the story easier: Hero, Villain, Dispatcher, Donor, Helper, Princess/Prize
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Neale's Genre Theory
1) Audience's enjoy specific texts because of "repetition and difference" of genre elements used. E.g. a person enjoying an action film because of he typical action conventions and avoids conventions typically used in other genres
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Genre Theory (2)
2) Genre isn't static, it's always revolving and has a cycle consisting of the following stages: Form Finds Itself; Classic; Pushes The Boundaries; Homage; Parody
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Altman's Genre Theory
Believes genre is consisted of two different elements: Semantic - visual, easy to identify (guns=action, blood=horror); and Syntactic - emotional theme elements (love, revenge, grief)
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Frankfurt School's Hypodermic Needle Theory
Marxist theorists who believe audiences are passive and controlled by the media. Institutions exert hegemonic control over audiences by 'injecting' them with social messages via media. (theory theory has been said is 'too simplistic')
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Marxists Media Theories
Media is used to pacify the working class and keep them under control. Audiences are kept in a state of 'false consciousness' where if they work hard they will succeed. It is in the ruling classes interest to keep exploitation
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Stuart Hall's Preferred, Negotiated and Oppositional Readings Theory
Hall is a neo-Marxist who believes the media TRIES to control audiences, depending on the background. He thinks audiences make take a: Preferred approach - accepting all messages in the product
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Preferred, Negotiated and Oppostional Readings Theory (2)
Negotiated Reading - Where the audience accepts SOME of the product but not all; and Oppositional approach - the audience rejects all messages by product
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Baudrillard's Theory of Hypereality
Postmodernist who thinks were so surrounded by media products and audiences can no longer tell the difference between reality and media, where the lines between the two have become blurred and audiences prefer the media's representation of reality
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Stanely Cohen's Moral Panic Theory
Suggests the media has power to create a sense of panic amongst audiences by repeatedly reporting on a specific situation/persons (Teenage Punks in the 80s; Jimmy Saville and the child molestation accusations; phone hacking)
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Laura Mulvey's Feminist Theory
There are only two representations of women in the media: The whore - represented as promiscuous, strong, a sex object; or the Virgin - represented as weak, innocent, subservient, virginal
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Gaultaung and Ruge's News Values Theory
Theory as to why some news gets more attention: Negativity - more negative, more popular; Size - more people it affects, the better;
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News Values Theory (2)
Unusualness - the more odd or unexpected event; Familiarity - audiences can identify with a story they're familiar with; Celebrity - it will be more popular if it features famous people
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The audience use the media to experience a perfection they don't get from their real lives. He believes media solves the audiences problems: Isolation - Social Interaction; Confusion - Clarity; Boredom - Excitement

Back

Richard Dyer's Utopian Solutions Theory

Card 3

Front

Theory that suggests the main needs every human has: Self-Actualization - creativity, problem solving, lack of prejudice' acceptance of facts; Esteem - Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Love/Belonging - Friends, family, intimacy; Safety - confidence in body, employment, morality, health; Psychological - Breath, Food, water, homeostasis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

This advertising agency suggests audiences can be classified by personality: Explorer - Needs new experiences and likes discovery; Aspirer - materialistic, worries about superficial qualities; Succeeder - Enjoys control and prestige brands

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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