Theorists

HideShow resource information
Dale Spender
"Each day we construct the world we live in according to these man made rules." Language is encoded, and reflects society (Men's Status etc.)
1 of 20
Robin Lakoff (1975)
Women use direct quotes instead of paraphrasing. They question intonation, use more imperatives, modal verbs and intensifiers. They also apologise more.
2 of 20
Robin Lakoff (1975) Women's Language
They use hedging, polite terms, tag questions and empty adjectives
3 of 20
Pamela Fishman (1983)
Argues that conversation between the sexes sometimes fails, not because of anything inherent in the way women talk but because of how men respond, or don't respond
4 of 20
Pamela Fishman (1990)
Questions Lakoff's theories, Lakoff suggests asking questions shows insecurity in communication. Fishman states that women ask questions because of the power it allows them to have
5 of 20
Janet Holmes (1992)
States that questions are a device to help maintain discussion or to be polite instead of being a show of insecurity
6 of 20
O'Barr and Atkins (1980)
Looked at courtroom cases and their findings challenged Lakoff's view. They describe it as 'powerless language' and it shows that langauge differences are based on situation-specific authority or power and not gender
7 of 20
Sara Mills (1995)
Many of the female equivalents are marked as indicatives of sexual promiscuity. The male equivalents appear to be positive with connotations of a free-spirited, independant lifestyle, yet the female terms have more negative connotations
8 of 20
Zimmerman and West (1975)
Carried out a study of a small sample of conversations at some universities. They reported that in 11 mixed sex conversations, men interrupted 46 times, but women only interrupted twice
9 of 20
Jennifer Coates (1989)
Suggested that all-female talk is essentially cooperative as the speakers reach a mutal understanding in discussions. She argues that these patterns are not found in mixed talk between men and women
10 of 20
Jane Pilkington (1992)
Found that women in same-sex talk were more collaborative than men were in all-male talk. She concluded that women aimed for more positive politness strategies whilst men tended to be less complimentary and supportive
11 of 20
Koenraad Kuiper (1991)
Kuiper found that in all-male talk amongst members of a rugby team, men were more likely to pay less attention to save face, using insults to express solidarity
12 of 20
Deborah Tannen
She summerized her findings into six categories which she named the difference model
13 of 20
Status vs Support
Men see conversation as competitive, the seek to achieve the upper hand or prevent others from dominating them. Women see conversation as a way to gain confirmation. Men are about status and Women are more focused on support
14 of 20
Independance vs Intimacy
Women think in terms of closeness and support, and struggle to preserve intimacy. Men concerned with status, tend to focus more on independance
15 of 20
Advice vs Understanding
To many men a complaint is a challenge to find a solution, women want sympathy/advice whereas men will offer a solution to the problem
16 of 20
Information vs Feeling
Men can comunicate information in a short amount of time without really saying much, but women take a long time to converse and it is usually about feelings and usually grooming talk
17 of 20
Order vs Proposals
Women often suggest that people do things in indirect ways, whereas Men may use, and prefer to hear, a direct imperative
18 of 20
Conflict vs Compromise
Men will often resist vocally, whereas women tend to complain subsequently
19 of 20
Semantic Derogation
The sense of negative meaning or connotation that some lexical items have attached to them. In this case, it could be argued that some of the femine forms lessen the value and representation of women, and could be seen as insulting.
20 of 20

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Women use direct quotes instead of paraphrasing. They question intonation, use more imperatives, modal verbs and intensifiers. They also apologise more.

Back

Robin Lakoff (1975)

Card 3

Front

They use hedging, polite terms, tag questions and empty adjectives

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Argues that conversation between the sexes sometimes fails, not because of anything inherent in the way women talk but because of how men respond, or don't respond

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Questions Lakoff's theories, Lakoff suggests asking questions shows insecurity in communication. Fishman states that women ask questions because of the power it allows them to have

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language and gender resources »