Theories of Speech

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Shaffer, Wood & Willoughby (2002)
Children imitate what they see and hear and learn from punishment and reinforcement
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Conversation Theory (Gordon Pask)
Conversation theory regards social systems as symbolic, language-oriented systems where responses depend on one person's interpretation of another person's behaviour, and where meanings are agreed through conversations
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Trugill (1983)
Women's pronunciation is closer to received pronunciation than males
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Cheshire (1982)
Boys tend to use more non-grammatical forms, like ain't, than girls
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Lakoff (Robin) (1975)
Women use more hedges and fillers, tag questions, and apologetic and indirect requests. They speak less, use fewer expletives and more intensifiers
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Zimmerman and West (1975)
Found 96% of interruptions were made by men, suggesting male dominance in conversation
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Tanner (1990)
Men are more concerned with status. They interrupt more, give more direct orders, don't mind conflict and use more intensifiers in getting facts. Women are the opposite.
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Beattie (1982)
Male interruptions are their way of conveying support to the speaker
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Coates
'Women's talk' falls into four categories: Complaining, Chatting, House Talk and Scandal
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Grice's Maxims
Four maxims that suggest 'rules' for conversation - quality, quantity, relevance and manner
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Card 2

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Conversation theory regards social systems as symbolic, language-oriented systems where responses depend on one person's interpretation of another person's behaviour, and where meanings are agreed through conversations

Back

Conversation Theory (Gordon Pask)

Card 3

Front

Women's pronunciation is closer to received pronunciation than males

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Boys tend to use more non-grammatical forms, like ain't, than girls

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Women use more hedges and fillers, tag questions, and apologetic and indirect requests. They speak less, use fewer expletives and more intensifiers

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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