Theories of Perception

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What are the core concepts of Gregory's Bottom Up approach?
This states that info. is gathered directly from the enviro., because of the rich detail provided, there is no need for any higher cognitive processing. Percep. can be explained solely from the enviro. (Innate ability)
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What is the Optic Array?
The pattern of light that reaches the eye that contains all visual info.
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What is Optic Flow?
A perceptual effect in which the visual environment appears to 'move away' from the point (pole) towards which a person is moving, the further away the point, the faster the flow. This 'point' stays the same.
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What is an Invariant?
These are certain aspects of the optic array that remain the same as the observer moves. Examples include the pole (point) and the horizon ratio relation. (how much of an object is above/below the horizon)
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What are the core concepts of Gibson's Top Down approach?
Percep. is an active and constructive process. We use the info. provided to our eyes as the basis for forming hypotheses about the visual enviro. and have to apply higher cognitive functioning to what we're seeing. Motivational/emotional factors!
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What is the core concept of Neisser's Cyclic Theory?
This theory combines both BU and TD. States that schemas contain knowledge from past exp. which direct percep. exploration to relevant stimuli, which leads the observer to sample it. The schema is modified if the two don't match.
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How is Bottom Up processing represented in Neisser's Cyclic Theory?
The sampling of available enviro. info. that can modify the current schema
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How is Top Down processing represented in Neisser's Cyclic theory?
The fact that the schema being used influences the course of information processing involved in percep.
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What is a schema?
A collection of knowledge derived from past experience
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What is the Optic Array?

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The pattern of light that reaches the eye that contains all visual info.

Card 3

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What is Optic Flow?

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Card 4

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What is an Invariant?

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Card 5

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What are the core concepts of Gibson's Top Down approach?

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