Theories of Intelligence

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 24-04-16 13:10
Explicit Theories
Scientific/ Empirical evidence
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Implicit Theories
Non-scientific/ beliefs and opinions
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Sternberg et al
Behaviours related to Intelligence, Academic Intelligence, Everyday Intelligence, Lack of Intelligence= Verbal Ability, Practical Problem Solving, Social Competence
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Additional aspects
Intellectual Balance, Fluid Thought, Contextual Intelligence, Goal Orientation and Attainment
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Demetrious and Papadopoulus
Western= cognitive/ Non-Western= also refer to spiritual, social, familial, historic aspects
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Confucian
Intelligence through benevolence and morality
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Taoist
Freedom from conventional judgement, self awareness
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Yang and Sternberg
Taiwanese ps- cognitive factor, interpersonal intelligence, intra personal intelligence, intellectual self assertion, intellectual self effacement
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Baral and Das
Indian- thinking, judgement and decision must gel together/ self awareness/ modesty and politeness
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Sternberg 'Expert' views
All different for Arts, Philosophy, Physics and Business
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Common themes
Adaptation to the environment, basic mental processes, higher order reasoning, problem solving and decision making
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Psychometric tests
Measure common elements, correlate with each other
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Factor analysis
Look at common elements across tests/ explain as much variance as possible
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Spearman
g factor- verbal fluency, mathematical skill, spatial visual skill= positive manifold/ correlates with IQ
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S factor
Specific ability contributes to g
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Two factor model
Tests vary in emphasis on g or s- G loading/ S loading
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Jensen
g is related to speed and efficiency of info processing
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Correlates with g
Brain size, neural plasticity, occupation, health, education
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Batteries
(how you measure test)- g correlates across batteries= biological
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Thordike and Thompson
Sampling View- g isn't psychological or biological construct! Correlations between tests due to same processes being used for each one/ complex tasks more likely to correlate because they contain more processes/ can't test basic processes accurately
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Van der Maars et al
Mutualism- g doesn't exist! Abilities are independent but mutually influence each other
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G strong at... Increases at slow rate to...
2.5yrs/ 10yrs
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Thurstone abandoned magic palace really seeming virtually wrong
Multi factor theory- Associative memory, Mathematical ability, Perceptual speed, Reasoning, Spatial visualisation, verbal comprehension, word fluency
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Cattell
Multi factor theory- fluid intelligence= G(f)/ Crystallised intelligence G(c)
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Fluid
Problem solving and adaptation- hereditary/ culturally independent/ can't be trained
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Sensitive to
Brain damage, age (downhill after 22), normal fluctuations
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Crystallised
Application of formal knowledge- environment and experience dependent/ peak at middle-ages/ can be trained
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Vernon's hierarchical model
Major factors consist of minor factors (v:ed)= verbal/educational/ numerical (k:m)= physical/mechanical/ spatial
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Hierarchy
G- major factors- minor factors- S
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Cattell and Horn
Stratum II- Broad -> Stratum I- S factor
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Broad G(f), G(c), G(y)=
STM and LTM
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G(v)
Visual perception
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G(u)
Auditory perception
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G(r)
Retrieval ability
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G(s)
Cognitive Speediness
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G(t)
Processing speed
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Carroll
Same but with Stratum III= G!
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Cattell-Horn- Carroll
Two models combined- doesn't contain G, more broad factors and more emerging!
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Gardner's multiple intelligence
Central factor can't explain modularity of mind- too complex!
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Look at
Pathology, 'special' populations, different species, different cultures
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9 intelligences billmins
Linguistic, Logio-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic
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Educational
Individualise- pluralise teaching (learn in different ways)
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Sternberg's Triadic Theory
Practical intelligence/ Analytic intelligence/ Creative intelligence
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Analytic intelligence
Metacomponents (planning), performance, knowledge aquisition
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Practical Intelligence
Interacting with environment- adaptation, shaping, selection, tacit knowledge- action orientated knowledge
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Leonard and Insch
tacit knowledge to succeed in uni
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Creative Intelligence
Novelty- Interact with environment in relation to past experience/ Automation- resource allocation
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Divergent=... Convergent=...
Creative, Analytical
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Implicit Theories

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Non-scientific/ beliefs and opinions

Card 3

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Sternberg et al

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Card 4

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Additional aspects

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Card 5

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Demetrious and Papadopoulus

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