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inputs, outputs and processes of an industrial system?
inputs- capital,raw materials,water supply,energy supply,site,labour. processes in the factory convert the raw materials into finished products. outputs- finished products for sale and waste.
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physical and human inputs on large-scale system of commercial farming?
physical- very large area of land. Human-Large capital input.A paid often skilled labour force.Much use of research and development.Modern mechanisation.Improved crop varieties and hybrids.Fertiliser,pesticide,herbicide.Irrigation where necessary
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human inputs and processes of subsistence farming?
processes are intensive.Capital input is small which prevents increasing their output. tradition often fixes the roles of men and women.Seeds lefts over from previous years are used for the next year.The only fertiliser used might be manure.
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natural inputs of subsistence farming?
in arable systems each farm is small perhaps as small as 1-3 ha. in the case of subsistence pastoral farming, areas of land can be much larger, especially in the case of pastoral nomadism where people move from place to place with their animals.
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causes of food shortages?
soil exhaustion,Drought,Floods,Tropical cyclones,Pests,Crop/animal diseases,Diseases affecting farmers,Low capital investment,Poor transport,Wars and increased use of biofuels.
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food shortages problems?
globally more than one third of child deaths are attributable to undernutrition. undernourished children have lowered resistance to infection & are more likely to die from common childhood ailment.
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what are primary, secondary and tertiary industries?
Primary- produce raw material(farming,fishing, forestry,mining & quarrying). Secondary- manufacture goods from raw materials. tertiary- provide services(retailing, transport, education and health)
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growth of tourism in relation to the main attractions of the physical and human landscapes?
local culture is encouraged to survive.Historic buildings are preserved.More built attractions.Locals can use tourist facilities & benefit from the improved infrastructure.Exposure to outside influences can change traditional ways of life.
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economic benefits of tourism?
reduced unemployment, businesses connected with tourism, other local businesses benefit, increase the wealth of the country, skills are learnt, tourist areas become richer, foreign exchange increases as tourists change money into local currency.
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negative economic effects of tourism?
seasonal unemployment, many tourist businesses are owned by foreign countries, inland economy declines, some workers are foreign & send wages home, skills learnt mean people can leave & work in other countries, other parts without tourism remain poor
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significance of fuelwood in LEDCs?
in many LEDCs fuelwood accounts for 70% of energy supplies.Fuelwood doesnt require high technology equipment.It provides an accessible source of fuel for heating & cooking.If there is enough land then wood can be a renewable sustainable energy source
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significance of non-renewable fossil fuels?
coal,oil & gas are produced from organic material which was growing millions of years ago.To grow this organic matter got its energy from the sun.When we use these fuels we are using the suns energy from millions of years ago- stored as fossil fuels.
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geothermal power?
energy extracted from hot rocks or water beneath the surface. hot areas at plate margins are the prospects for geothermal energy.Advantage- it doesnt produce greenhouse gases. Disadvantage- it is restricted to areas with suitable geology.
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wind power?
wind farms, located in wide open spaces where its likely to have the strongest winds.Advantage-wind farms may provide a small source of income for farmers.Disadvantage- cant be used during calm period or storms
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solar power?
light converted into electricity using solar panels.When more solar energy is generated than is being used it can be stored in a battery/exported to national utility grid.Advantage-its safe & pollution free.Disadvantage- initial capital input is high
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biofuels?
theses are fuels from biomass they include liquid fuels,biogas & solid biofuels. advantage- prices could be more stable than world oil prices.Disadvantage-can cause decrease in food supply & an increase in world food prices
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water supply?
comes from two different types of source both of which come from rainfall.Surface water- water from rivers & lakes.Groundwater- water held within the spaces in porous, permeable rocks, in the same way that gas & oil is held.
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factors affecting the location of thermal power station?
coal-fire power station are often located close to the coal mines. many power stations are located along rivers for cooling water. a large plate site is needed for the plant, cooling towers, fuel storage and railway lines.
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factors affecting the location of nuclear power stations?
large flat site is needed. pure water for cooling is needed. built near coast to get rid of radioactive waste and of very low level liquids.
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factors affecting the location of hydro-electric power stations?
a large river, large falling distance of water, constant flow of water throughout the year, a narrow valley to provide dam sites, impermeable rocks so that the reservoirs dont leak, stable geological conditions & sparsely populated land.
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what is water in demand for?
agriculture- irrigation in dry areas.Domestic use- in MEDCs people use large volumes of water each day for washing,flushing toilets,watering & washing cars this isnt available in LEDCs.industrial use-use large volumes of water in processing & cooling
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physical and human inputs on large-scale system of commercial farming?

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physical- very large area of land. Human-Large capital input.A paid often skilled labour force.Much use of research and development.Modern mechanisation.Improved crop varieties and hybrids.Fertiliser,pesticide,herbicide.Irrigation where necessary

Card 3

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human inputs and processes of subsistence farming?

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Card 4

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natural inputs of subsistence farming?

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causes of food shortages?

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