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sparse population?
when not many people live in an area e.g. the centre of Australia
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dense population?
when a lot of people live in an area
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population pyramid?
shows the age and sex structure of the country. it is a type of graph that is divided into males and females and then age groups.
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describe the relationship between population growth and resources?
too many people means too few resources however too few people means resources are being used to maximum efficiency.
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explain why problems may occur in over-populated areas?
there are too many people and too few resources
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government policies and their impact upon birth rates - increase?
restrict availability of birth control.e.g. Ghana. make abortion illegal e.g.Guernsey. give family allowances to those with more children e.g. france. support working mothers. improve heath care. restrict roles for women in society.
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government policies and their impact upon birth rates - decrease
promote birth control,e.g.Singapore. permit abortion. encourage sterilisation, e.g. India. control the number of children in a family,e.g.China. run governmental advertising campaigns,e.g. India
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difference in health care in LEDCs and MEDCs
LEDCs can't afford the medicine that MEDCs can afford. in some MEDCs medication is free for children in fulltime education.
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social & other factors influencing death rates?
Medical facilities and health care. Nutrition levels. Living standard. Access to clean drinking water. Hygiene levels. Levels of infectious diseases. Social factors such as conflicts and levels of violent crime.
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the impact of HIV/AIDS on a population?
decreases the population and the working people because many people find it hard to work with aids
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young dependents?
the number or the percentage of the population under the age of 16.
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old dependents?
the number or the percentage of the population over the age of 65.
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economically active?
people between the ages of 16 and 65. this is basically the working group.
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population density?
Population density is the average number of people per square kilometre. It is a way of measuring population distribution and shows whether an area is sparsely or densely populated.
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population distribution?
The way in which people are spread across a given area.
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two types of migration?
temporary, permanent, voluntary and involuntary (forced)
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why do people migrate?
push & pull factors. harsh environments, marriage, economic advancements, persecution & political factors, quality of life, population pressure, forced, labour migration.
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what are the benefits and problems of different patterns of population?
problems in LEDCs - many young dependents. problems in MEDCs - many elderly dependents.
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reasons for different types of population structure?
some countries are MEDCs and others are LEDCs meaning they have different needs and need different types of people. also LEDCs dont have some equipment that MEDCs have.
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what is a dispersed rural settlement?
scattered, isolated dwellings and small hamlets with few villages. they develop where the agricultural land is poor and where people need large areas of land for things such as grazing.
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what is a linear rural settlement?
are in long thin rows, often along roads of tracks. they develop along a road or track for transport, near to an area of farming land, at right angles to the road. they may be along a river or a line of springs for water supply or a valley floor.
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what is a nucleated rural settlement?
have houses clustered together as villages, with fewer isolated dwellings. the shape of the village is compact and more square or circular. they develop at cross roads, bridges, good defensive points and where there are mineral resources.
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what is hierarchy?
when something is ranked in order.
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what is a hierarchy of settlements?
a list of settlements in order of population size and the number and range of services provided
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what is hierarchy of services?
puts the services of a settlement or area in rank order of importance usually based on the population needed to support the service and the frequency of use.
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suggest reason for the hierarchy of settlements and services?
settlements - to know which countries are developing well and which aren't. services - to know which services are being used most
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describe the general distribution of fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes?
fold mountains-destructive with an oceanic & a continental plate, destructive with 2 continental plates. earthquakes-all types of destructive plates, constructive plates & conservative plates. volcanoes- destructive and constructive plates
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show a basic understanding of constructive plates? (sea floor spreading)
Constructive plate boundaries are found under the ocean & cause the seafloor to spread.The movement apart of the plates allows magma to escape from the mantle below.When the magma touches the ocean it cools & forms new land creating an oceanic ridge.
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show a basic understanding of destructive plates?(subduction)
the denser oceanic crust is forced(subducted) under the continental plate.Huge amounts of heat from the mantle & also friction cause the oceanic plate to start melting in the subduction zone.The continental plate can not be destroyed so is forced up.
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show a basic understanding of conservative plates?
Because plates are not being forced up or down, there are no major landforms found at these boundaries. Also because crust is not being destroyed, no magma is being created so there are no volcanoes. However, they can cause big earthquakes.
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explain how mineral composition influences the type & rate of weathering?
limestone is made from calcium carbonate & is susceptible to carbonation. rocks which contain iron minerals are prone to oxidation. one of the most common minerals, quartz, is chemically resistant & doesnt weather chemically.
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explain how the grain size of a rock influences the type & rate of weathering?
in general the bigger the grain or crystals the faster the rate of weathering. crystalline rocks have a greater resistance than rocks made out of grains or fragments.
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explain how the presence of lines of weakness influences the type & rate of weathering?
allow water to penetrate the rock & increase both physical & chemical effects of weathering. these weaknesses also control the size & shape of the weather fragments.
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what is swash?
the forward movement of a wave up the beach.
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what is backwash?
the backward movement of a wave down the beach
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what is the action of wind shaping coastal sand dunes?
dune ridges are moved inland because the onshore wind moves sand from their seaward sides to their lee sides.
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describe coastal sand dunes?
these ridges of sand form at the back of beaches & on spits by wind deposition. new embryo dunes form nearer the sea. eventually lines of dunes develop parallel to the sea with long depressions containing water or march between them
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describe coastal marsh ? (saltmarsh)
usually found behind spits in estuaries or on low energy coastlines.Because there areas tend to have low levels of energy deposition exceeds erosion.The continued deposition means mudbanks are formed & they are exposed at low tide.
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what conditions are required for developing fringing in coral reefs?
next to the coast at about low tide level. they are covered by a narrow shallow lagoon at high tide. they are parallel to the coast & their outer edges slope steeply down into the sea beyond.
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what conditions are required for developing barrier reefs in coral reefs?
usually several kilometres from the coast & separated from it by wide, deep lagoons.
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what conditions are required for developing atolls in coral reefs?
these are narrow, circular reefs, broken by channels. they surround a deep lagoon.
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describe a rain-gauge?
Rain gauges are used to measure rainfall.Rainfall is normally measured in millimetres.Rain gauges should be placed on grass because if they are placed on concrete extra water can splash into them.Rain gauges should be checked regularly to avoid evapo
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describe a maximum-minimum thermometer?
records the maximum temperature of the day and the minimum temperature of the day. contains a mixture of mercury and alcohol. The mercury sits in the u-bend of the thermometer.
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describe a wet and dry bulb thermometer?(hydrometer)
measures the humidity of the air. Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air. A hygrometer has 2 thermometers a dry & a wet. Humidity is measured by using a table that looks at the difference between the wet & dry bulb.the dew point is also found.
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what is urbanisation?
the growth of towns and cities leading to an increasing percentage of the population living in urban areas.
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describe a barometer?
used to measure air pressure.Air pressure is normally measured in millibars.They are normally kept inside Stevenson screens to keep them safe. it has a movable needle.The pointer can be moved to the current reading so that a comparison can be made.
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describe an anemometer?
measure wind speed.Digital anemometers are very accurate but the more basic ones aren't very good or accurate at recording light winds. Anemometers are normally placed on top of buildings so they're not protected from wind.
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describe a wind vane?
used to check the direction of the wind. Compass points are used to give wind direction. Wind is measured in the direction that the wind is coming from. Wind vanes are often placed on top of buildings so that they are fully exposed to the wind.
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dense population?

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when a lot of people live in an area

Card 3

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population pyramid?

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Card 4

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describe the relationship between population growth and resources?

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Card 5

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explain why problems may occur in over-populated areas?

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