The working memory model

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 02-03-14 11:59
Who created the working memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch.
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What is the working memory model?
An explanation of short-term memory.
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Why did Baddeley and Hitch propose the working memory model?
Because a single short-term memory seemed too simple and did not explain how we could do 2 separate type of tasks at once.
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What are the components of the working memory model and how are they linked?
The central executive, which is linked to the episodic buffer, which is linked to the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
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Describe the central executive.
It drives the whole system, decides how attention from long-term and sensory memory is directed, allocates the resources, and has limited capacity so can't attend to many things at once, controls primary memory, most important component.
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What type of encoding does the central executive use?
Any form of encoding.
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Describe the episodic buffer.
It's general storage space for acoustic and visual information, integrates information from the central executive, phonological loop, visual sketchpad, and long-term memory, has limited capacity, and maintains a sense of time sequencing.
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Describe the phonological loop.
It deals with auditory and the order of information, and Baddeley divided it into the auditory store, which holds speech based information for 1-2 seconds, and the articulatory control process, which is used to rehearse verbal information.
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What kind of information is likely to get muddled in the phonological loop?
Similar sounding information.
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Describe the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
It holds visual and spatial information for a very short time, and you use it when planning spatial tasks.
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What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad subdivided into, and what does each of the components do?
The visual cache, which stores information about visual items, and the inner scribe, which stores the arrangement
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Who did a study into the central executive?
Baddeley.
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What did Baddeley do in his study about the central executive?
They asked participants to think of random digits with no connection to each other, and then were asked to repeat them after a length of time, or after reciting the alphabet, counting from 1 or alternating between letters and numbers.
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What did Baddeley find after his study about the central executive?
That the numbers the participants were less random when they alternated between letters and numbers because they were competing for the same central executive resources.
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What does the phonological loop and articulatory process explain?
The word-length effect.
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How many seconds of information can the phonological loop and articulatory process hold?
2 seconds.
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Why can't long words be rehearsed?
Because they don't fit in the phonological loop.
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What causes words to disappear from the phonological loop and articulatory process, and what does this mean?
If a person is given an articulatory suppression task whilst reading the word to remember, which means you can't rehearse the short words more quickly.
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In the case study of KF what was odd about their memory, and what does this show?
Their short-term memory of auditory information was worse than that of visual information, but they could remember meaningful sounds, not letters and digits, which shows their brain damage was to the phonological loop.
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In the case study of SC what was odd about their memory, and what does this suggest?
They could learn new things except pairs of words spoken, which suggests damage to the phonological loop.
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In the case study of LH what was odd about their memory, and what does this suggest?
They were better at spacial tasks than visual imagery tasks, which suggests separate visual and spatial systems.
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How does the working memory model explain dual-task performance?
Because 2 simultaneous visual tasks interfere with each other whereas visual and auditory ones don't.
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What did Bunge et al. do it their study?
They used fMRI to demonstrate greater activation in certain parts of the brain when participants engaged in dual-task activity, reflecting increased attentional demands.
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Card 2

Front

What is the working memory model?

Back

An explanation of short-term memory.

Card 3

Front

Why did Baddeley and Hitch propose the working memory model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the components of the working memory model and how are they linked?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the central executive.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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