The Vietnam War, 1955-75

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Louise
  • Created on: 17-04-13 17:32
Which colonial power dominated Vietnam from the 1800s up until 1954?
France
1 of 33
For the 9 years preceding this (1945-1954) what had the USA done in an attempt to help France regain control in Vietnam
Sent money & weapons
2 of 33
Into what two parts was Vietnam temporarily divided (Geneva Accords, 1954)?
A communist north (ruled by Ho Chi Minh) and a capitalist south (ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem)
3 of 33
Who were the Viet Cong?
South Vietnamese communist guerrillas
4 of 33
What did they start doing in 1959?
They began hit and run attacks on American bases
5 of 33
On whose orders?
North Vietnam's Ho Chi Minh
6 of 33
How did the toal number of US military 'advisors' in Vietnam chnage under Kennedy (1961-63)?
from 900 to 16,000
7 of 33
Was this successful?
No. They didn't manage to defeat the guerrillas
8 of 33
What was the 'domino theory'?
If South vietnam became Communist, so would the rest of South East Asia
9 of 33
Why would the rest of Asia becoming communist be a problem?
It would be a global threat to capitalism (because of trading)
10 of 33
Why was Johnson worried about the USA's credibility if S. Vietnam became communist?
Governments were doubting whether Washington was a reliable ally against Moscow and Beijing.
11 of 33
Why was Johnson worried about his own credibility?
He wouldn't be re-elected if S. Vietnam fell (Truman wasn't re-elected in 1949 when China fell to Mao Zedong)
12 of 33
What was the Gulf of Tonkin incident (August 1964)?
North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked patrolling US destroyers, Johnson got Congressional authority to begin bombing North Vietnam
13 of 33
What was S. vietnam like by 1965?
It was near collapse. Only US troops had mobility (eg helicopters) and firepower (artillery/airstrikes) needed to defeat the communist forces
14 of 33
Why didn't the USA just invade North Vietnam or bomb it into submission?
The USA feared war with the USSR or the People's Republic of China
15 of 33
What was the Ho Chi Minh trail?
The Ho Chi Minh Trail was used by the North Vietnamese as a route for its troops to get into the South. They also used the trail as a supply route – for weapons, food and equipment. The Ho Chin Minh Trail ran along the Laos/Cambodia & Vietnam borders
16 of 33
Why couldn't US troops destroy Viet Cong/NVA forces in South Vietnam?
These guerillas refused to fight out in the open (they'd be crushed). Instead they retreated into hidden tunnels or into Laos/Cambodia
17 of 33
What did VC/NVA trrops use to demoralise the US trops?
Booby traps and ambushes
18 of 33
Why couldn't Washington get the support of most of the population of South Vietnam? (communist aims- land?)
They were mostly peasants so sympathised more with the communist aims (land redistribution) than with the Saigon government
19 of 33
Why couldn't Washington get the support of most of the population of South Vietnam? (destruction caused by US military)
The use of firepower, napalm, strategic hamlets and defoliation, alienated the peasants
20 of 33
Why couldn't Washington get the support of most of the population of South Vietnam? (search and destroy operations left villages unprotected)
The US's military focus on hunting down the guerillas left the villages unprotected, allowing communist agents to murder collaborators and to extract rice & $
21 of 33
How much money had the USA spent in the war by 1968? what were the effects of this?
$30 billion a year. This was damaging the USA's economy so public support was lost
22 of 33
What affect did the Tet Offensive in 1968 have in the USA?
This surprise communist offensive belied Johnson's claims that the war was nearly won.. About 14000 US soldiers were killed in action in 1968
23 of 33
What affect did the media coverage have in the USA?
Especially from 1968, brutal images of the war were broadcast on TV. They were shocked by news of the 1968 My Lai massacre where civies were murdered by US troops
24 of 33
There was an anti-war movement in the USA- what was a slogan?
"Hey, Hey, LBJ! How many kids did'ya kill today?"
25 of 33
When did Nixon become president?
1969
26 of 33
What did his promise of 'peace with honour' mean?
An end to the war
27 of 33
New US strategy of Vietnamisation, 1969-73?
US troops handed over more fighting to the US-supplied S. vietnamese army
28 of 33
What was agreed at the Paris Peace Accords 1973?
N. Vietnam agreed to recognise the existence of S. Vietnam
29 of 33
How did Hanoi (North capital) break the deal in 1975?
Unification- N. Vietnam invaded & overthrew S. Vietnam
30 of 33
What did US Congress do about his violation?
Refused to intervene
31 of 33
Who were/are the 'boat people'?
The hundreds of thousands of people from S. Vietnam who fled the communist regime as refugees.
32 of 33
How many US troops were left in 1972?
47,000
33 of 33

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

For the 9 years preceding this (1945-1954) what had the USA done in an attempt to help France regain control in Vietnam

Back

Sent money & weapons

Card 3

Front

Into what two parts was Vietnam temporarily divided (Geneva Accords, 1954)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who were the Viet Cong?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did they start doing in 1959?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The USA - twentieth century change resources »