The victims of crime.

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  • Created by: ncs1997
  • Created on: 20-05-15 18:02
How does the United Nations define a victim and how does Nils Christie take a different approach?
Those who have suffered harm through acts or omissions that violate the laws of the state. Nils Christie - victim is a social construct and there is an 'ideal victim'.
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What 3 features does Miers identify positivist victimology as having?
It identifies factors that produce patterns in victimisation. Focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence. Identifies victims who have contributed to their own victimisation.
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What is victim proneness and what did Hans Von Hentig find?
It's the social and psychological characteristics of victims. He identified 13 traits, e.g. female, elderly or mentally 'subnormal'. Also includes lifestyle choices such as those who chose to display their wealth.
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What does Marvin Wolfgang find?
Studied 588 homicides and found that 26% involved victim precipitation e.g. where the victim starts the fight (usually the case when the victim male and the perpetrator female).
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What are 3 criticisms of positivist victimology?
Ignores wider structural factors. Can easily tip into victim blaming. Ignores situations where victims are unaware of their victimisation.
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What 2 elements does critical victimology focus on?
Structural factors such as patriarchy and poverty, and the idea that victimisation is a form of structural powerlessness. The state's power to apply or deny the label of victim, and victim being a social construct.
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Tombs and Whyte.
Safety crimes are often explained as the fault of 'accident prone' workers and **** cases often victim blame. The ideological function of this failure to label is it hides the crimes of the powerful and creates a hierarchy of victimisation.
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What is 1 criticism of critical victimology?
it disregards the role victims may play in their own victimisation or their own offending.
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What are the patterns of victimisation?
Class - the poorest more likely to be victimised. Age - Younger people are more at risk. Ethnicity - minority ethnic groups are at a greater risk. Gender - males are more at risk of violence but women are more at risk of domestic/sexual violence.
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What are 3 impacts of victimisation?
Physical and emotional effects. Indirect victims such as friends or witnesses, especially children. Hate crimes can cause 'waves of harm' that are aimed at intimidation
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What is secondary victimisation and fear of victimisation?
1. Individuals may suffer more victimisation from cjs e.g. **** cases. 2. crime creates a fear of becoming a victim, e.g. women afraid of going out after dark when it is actually men who get attacked. Feminists criticise this for ignoring safety.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

It identifies factors that produce patterns in victimisation. Focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence. Identifies victims who have contributed to their own victimisation.

Back

What 3 features does Miers identify positivist victimology as having?

Card 3

Front

It's the social and psychological characteristics of victims. He identified 13 traits, e.g. female, elderly or mentally 'subnormal'. Also includes lifestyle choices such as those who chose to display their wealth.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Studied 588 homicides and found that 26% involved victim precipitation e.g. where the victim starts the fight (usually the case when the victim male and the perpetrator female).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Ignores wider structural factors. Can easily tip into victim blaming. Ignores situations where victims are unaware of their victimisation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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