The Tsar's in Russia

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  • Created by: Cristina
  • Created on: 02-04-15 13:48
What did Alexander II do?
Made major changes
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What was Alexander II known for?
Liberator - Strong ruler under autocracy
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What was the most significant change Alexander II do?
Introduced an imperial decree
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What were the peasants allowed to do after the emancipation of the imperial decree?
To buy their own land from landowners
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What did the peasants still have to pay?
Redemption payments for 49 years
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What reform did Alexander II introduce in 1864?
The zemstvo / local councils / wealthy members / education / road building
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What did Alexander II introduce by 1870?
Trial by jury
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Who was responsible for Alexander II assassination?
People's Will
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What did Alexander III become known as?
Repressive Tsar / Did not have any intention to modernise reforms / Reactionary
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Who was a threat to Alexander III?
People's Will because they wanted to eradicate the Tsar and had already murdered Tsar officials including the Tsar's uncle
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What was the main problem Alexander III faced?
His father had promised major changes within Russia / Received pressure / Wanted to make it more modernise like central Europe / This meant it would have shared autocracy power and elective parliament
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What was other factors facing Alexander III?
Large ethic groups / diverse / hard to regain control / Slavophiles wanted Russian dominance / owned 1/4 of the world's land population
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What did Alexander III leave behind to Nicholas II?
Repression
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What words would you describe Alexander III?
Firm leader / Strong ruler of autocracy
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How did Alexander III increase central control?
Land captain / enforced local laws / State security
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What was introduced that the slavophiles liked?
Russification / official language / documents / other languages in schools were abolished /
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Who hated Russification?
Muslims (central Asia)
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How did Alexander III solve the issue with People's will?
Increased state security / Okhrana police / arrest any government opponments without trial / exhiled to siberia
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What changes were made to education in Alexander III times?
University fees increased for the wealthy / Peasants did not have the opportunity / Primary schools were controlled from the Church
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What changes were made to the franchise?
Doctors and teacher no longer were allowed to vote
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What was political repression?
Freedom of radical ideas were banned / books and newspapers were monitored / 14 newspapers were banned
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What were the Jewish pogroms?
The government encouraged people to beat, rob, attack , **** or even kill any Jewish people
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How did the Jewish react?
Many fled / joined the Bund which helped in the 1917 revolution
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What was the finical reform?
Niokali introduced a peasant land bank / lowered tax burden on peasants / encourage production
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Describe Nicholas II?
shy , quiet , not fit to rule , 'girlie' , dominated by his wife , spoke many languages , believed in autocracy , 'senseless dreams'
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What did the government invest in?
'Ambitious programme' from Sergei Witte
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What was the most significant problem in 1880's?
Serfdom
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What was serfdom?
Agriculture laboures / led by landowners performed intensive work
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What could serfs only produce and why?
Subsistence agriculture / population increased 130 million
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What was subsistence agriculture known as?
Major obstacle to the development of industrialisation
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What was the main issue after imperial decree issued by Alexander II?
Serfs were not completely free / redemption payments (49) / ask permission from village elders
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What was Sergei Witte's aim?
To make Russia modernised and a 'great power'
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What did Sergei Witte introduced first and how did this help?
tariffs on capital goods (allowed taxes) / encouraged people to buy goods within the country
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What problems did Sergei Witte face?
Russians did not have many business classes / Serfs were not completely free to move to cities or work in factories / Russia did not have the quality resources like German and Britain / lack of surpluses / transport was limited
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Who helped fund the economic development?
The government and abroad (Britain + Germany)
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What did the government place emphasis on?
Capital goods such as coal , iron , steel machinery
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What was the most significant factor in Witte's programme?
The opening of the Trans-Siberian railway
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what did the Trans-Siberian railway allow?
Military production / exports goods to arrive
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What was the result of Witte's programme?
Factories were employing thousands / large cities grew / poor living conditions / encouraged radical parties to oppose the tsar
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was Alexander II known for?

Back

Liberator - Strong ruler under autocracy

Card 3

Front

What was the most significant change Alexander II do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the peasants allowed to do after the emancipation of the imperial decree?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the peasants still have to pay?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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