The Triumph of Elizabeth

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Reign of Edward VI
1547
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Denunciation of Images - This reflected radical attitudes and was supported within government and by Protestant activists who engaged in iconoclasm.
1547
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Injunctions of 1538 reissued, attacked many features of Catholicism. Reasserted Edward as the supreme head of the church, encouraged destruction of images. Discouraged people leaving money to charities.
1547
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Dissolution of the Chantries. Partly to get money for expensive foreign policy, partly because purgatory was no longer in official doctrine: no need to pay for the dead.
1547
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New book of Common Prayer - written in English. Excluded elevation of the house and introduced communion of both kinds. Considered quite moderate as it was based on a Catholic book.
1549
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Act of Uniformity. The book of Common Prayer is now the only legal form of worship. Using all other texts is illegal. No Latin in Churches.
1549
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Prayer Book Rebellion. Possibly the worst year in the Tudor reign. Major rebellions in South West and East Anglia. Somerset's government failed to cope. V
1549
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Reasons for the Prayer Book Rebellion:
Resentment of Tax, Social conflict, Enclosures (land taken into private ownership), Poverty as a result of Enclosures, Religious Grievances, The rebels wanted the past 15 years of religious reform reversed. Somerset placed a Tax on Sheep.
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Kett's Rebellion:
Not religiously motivated: little evidence of conservative beliefs among leaders, mainly motivated by social conflict and class differences. Hatred of local government, resentment of landowners, pent up frustration regarding weak rule of the Howards.
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The fall of Somerset:
Somerset had enemies due to his dictatorial style. Earl of Southampton was against Somerset being the protectorate - Somerset removed him from council/ Later re-elected by Southampton had plans against him. Somerset was blamed for 1549 rebellions.
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Government under Northumberland:
Ended wars with Scotland and France. Improved England's financial base, by securing £133,333 from France for return of Boulogne. Increased
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Religion under Northumberland:
Wanted to continued Somerset's protestant reforms and get wealth from the church.
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Impact of Religious Change:
By 1547, 20% of Londoners were protestant; Catholicism remained strong in the North. Church wardens were responsible for finance for parish churchs. Many historians say that the church lost its expenditure largely since 1540. Will's disappeared.
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The Succession:
Edwards became ill and Northumberland didn't want Mary on the throne. Made Edward make the 1544 Succession act so that Lady Jane Grey could become Queen. Lady Jane Grey married Dudley (his son) May 1553, but Edward dies before the succession legal.
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Failure of Lady Jane Grey's reign:
Dudley had not bargained for the instinctive reaction of the people to support Mary. When Dudley announced Jane's succession, he had failed to secure Mary. She fled to East Anglia - the region where Dudley had put down Kett's rebellion.
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Dudley surrendered to the authorities in Cambridge. He was put on trial for treason. He was executed.
1553
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The Western Rebellion
Religious/ Local Issues, Economic Issues (Tax on Sheep) Individual Issues,
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Vagrancy Act
1547
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Laws were passed that confirmed Mary's legitimacy
1553
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Repeal of Act of Six Articles
1547
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Act of Uniformity:
1549 - English services, prayer book to replace missal, sacraments reduced, priests can marry, only 2 sacraments lost, vestments continue, purgatory not expressively rejected, transubstantiation not rejected.
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Wyatt's Rebellion:
1553
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Cause of Wyatt's rebellion:
To prevent the marriage of Mary Tudor to Philip of Spain.
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Mary married Philip of Spain
1554
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Royal Injunctions Issues: remove married priests, divorce former religious people who had married, re-ordain priests, restore all processions and holy-days.
1554
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Charlees V and the Pope wrote to Mary, warning her not to proceed too quickly in restoring Catholicism to England.
1554
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Restoration of Heresy Laws
1554
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The first protestant martyr of Mary's reign, John Rogers, was condemned and burned. Nearly 300 followed throughout Mary's reign.
1555
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The Elizabethan Settlement
1559
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Elizabeth's first meeting in parliament -
1558/9
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Elizabethan Settlement Changes: Why?
Everyone agreed that she must have a uniform religion. She did it to make England inclusive. She may have had personal preferences.
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Elizabethan Settlement Changes:
Regional Variation, Compromise, Doctrine down played, Supreme Governor, Compulsory attendance in Church (Recusancy Fine)
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The Northern Rebellion:
1569
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The Ridolfi Plot
1571
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Marquis of Santa Cruz Dies:
1588
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The Spanish Armada Began:
1588
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Causes of the Armada:
Overthrow Protestant England. Elizabeth had been helping the Dutch protestants of the Spanish Netherlands. This angered Philip who wanted to stop this. English 'sea-dogs' had been causing a great deal of damage to Spain's trade in silver. (Drake)
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Causes of the Armada Continued:
The death of Catholic Mary Queen of Scots. Mary had made it clear that if she became Queen, Philip would be the heir when she died.
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Death of Mary Queen of Sctos:
1587
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Why was Mary executed?
She posed as a threat on being placed in England. Elizabeth could not send her back to England where she may have been killed but also couldn't keep her in England due to threat of rebellion so she kept her inprisoned, see Babington Plot
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Babington Plot
1586- Mary agreed that she should be the rightful queen and here and Anthony Babington wrote code letters, planning a plot to kill Elizabeth.
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The Ridolfi Plot:
Ridolfi wanted to secure landing of Spanish troops at Harwich in Essex. They would march on London -> Overthrow Elizabeth, marry Mary to Duke of Norfolk = Mary would be Queen. Plot was uncovered when one of Ridolfi's messagers was apprehended @ Dover
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Ridolfi Plot Continued:
It depended on the support of Philip of Spain and the Duke of Alba, neither wanted Mary on the Throne. It gave Burghley opportunity to strike at Norfolk. He sought to have Norfolk executed.
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The Throckmorton Plot,
12 parts to a consipracy: Spanish landing in Catholic Lancashire was a fantasy. Landing in Sussex landing would generate support from locally based Catholic aristocrats. Another plot was hatched with him as the leader for the overthrow of Elizabeth.
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The Parry Plot,
William Parry confessed to plotting to assassinate the Queen and replace her with Mary. Parry had been employed by Lord Burghley as an agent spying on Catholic exciles. One explanation for Parry is that Burghley and Walsingham decided to drop him.
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The Parry Plot Continued:
Parry could have been converted to the military catholic cause while undertaking his aspionage and was recruited as a double agent in order to assasinate Elizabeth.
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The Parry Plot year:
1585
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The Babington Plot Year:
1586
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The Throckmorton Plot year:
1583
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The Ridolfi Plot - Linked to Northern Rebellion
1571
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Philip ordered the seizure of all English ships and goods in the Spanish ports.
1585
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Philip of Spain resented Elizabeth's reaction to his acquisition of Portugal
1580
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Treaty of Joinville
The Treaty of Joinville is signed by the Catholic League of France, under Henry Duke of Guise, and Philip II of Spain. By its terms, Philip agrees to grant Spanish financial support to the League, to aid the claim to the French throne of Henry
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Denunciation of Images - This reflected radical attitudes and was supported within government and by Protestant activists who engaged in iconoclasm.

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