The Study of Anomalous Experience

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What is pseudoscience?
A 'false' science.
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What does it lack?
Falsifiability; controlled, replicable research; and theory
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What ability does it lack?
Ability to change explanations
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What happens if there are 2 competing explanations?
The simpler one is generally preferred.
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About from paranormal research, what else is unfalsifiable?
Freudian hypotheses
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What does Koch (1992) argue?
That psychology lacks objective theories
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What did Mousseau (2003) find?
That paranormal research often matches standards of scientific research, or even betters it
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What did the AAAS do?
Accepted the Parapsychological Association as a member
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What reasons are there to be concerned about paranormal research?
Making money out of unfounded claims; not asking for evidence.
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What do the Ganzfeld studies test?
Extra-sensory perception (ESP)
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What did Wooffitt (2007) suggest significant results could be due to?
Researcher bias - sheep-goat effect in receiver's elaborations
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Why are meta-analyses not appropriate to test Ganzfeld studies?
Expectations affect the outcomes of meta-analysis - Honorton (1985) vs Hyman (1985)
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What is the file-drawer effect?
Results of meta-analyses change according to which studies are left out
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What is the issue of control in the Ganzfeld studies?
Lack of soundproofing and order of presentation
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In evaluating Ganzfeld studies, what could positive results be due to?
Phenomena being jealous
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What did autoganzfeld do?
Improved control
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What did this lead to?
Positive results by Honorton et al (1985) but not Milton and Wiseman (1999)
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Who was this criticised by?
Bem et al (2001)
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What is a particular problem in parapsychology?
Fraudulent research
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What did expectatons in Wiseman and Greening's (2005) study lead to?
Macro-PK reports
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What did Hansel (1989) find?
Lack of control - well controlled studies show no effect
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What is the issue of ecological validity?
Micro-PK may not represent paranormal action
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What did Radin and Nelson (2003) find?
Quality of studies not related to positive results and significant results not due to a small group of investigators nor to file-drawer effect
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What did Bierman (2000) find?
Steady decline in effect size over years
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What does this suggest?
Phenomena was not real
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does it lack?

Back

Falsifiability; controlled, replicable research; and theory

Card 3

Front

What ability does it lack?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens if there are 2 competing explanations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

About from paranormal research, what else is unfalsifiable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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