The structure of an epithelial cell

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: lauraxxx
  • Created on: 06-01-15 12:51
What are the features of a nuclear envelope?
The double membrane which surrounds the nucleus which is continous with the EPR and usally has ribosomes on it's surface. It controls the entry and exit of materials and contains reactions
1 of 21
What are the features nuclear pores and nucleoplasm?
The nuclearpores allow the passage on large molecules like messenger RNA out of the nucleus. The nucleoplasm is the grainy jelly like material which makes up the most of the nucleus
2 of 21
What are the features of the chromatic?
The chromatic is the DNA found within the nucleoplasm which is the diffused form that chromasomes take up when the cell isnt dividing.
3 of 21
What are the features of the nucleolus?
Is the small spherical body within the nuceloplasm. It manufactures ribosomal RNA and assmebles ribsomes.
4 of 21
What are the functions of the nucleus?
Act as a control center through the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. Retain the genetic material of the cell in the form of DNA or chromosomes. Manufacture ribosomal RNA and ribsosomes.
5 of 21
What are the features of the mitochondrion double membrane?
Surrounds the organelle, The outer membrane controls the entry and exit of material and the inner membrane is folded to form extensions known as cristae.
6 of 21
What the features of the cristae?
Are shelf-like extensions of the inner membrane some which extend across the whole width of the mitochondrion. These provide a large surface area for the attatchment of enzymes involved in respiration.
7 of 21
What is the features of the matrix?
Makes up the remainder of the mitochondrion. It is semi-ridig material containing protein,lipids and traces of DNA that allows the mitochondria to control the production of their own proteins. The enzymes involved in respiration are found here
8 of 21
What are the features of the mitochondria?
Theyre involved in the Krebs cycle and Phosphorylation pathway and are therefore responsible for the energy-carrier molecule ATP from carbohydrates. The size of the mitochondria and there organelles increase the level of metabolic activity.
9 of 21
What are the features of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Is an elaborate 3-D system of sheet-like membranes,spreading through the cytoplasm. It's continous with the outer nuclear membrane. The membranes enclose flattened scas called cisternae
10 of 21
What are the features of the rough endoplasmic recticulum?
Has ribsosome present on the outer surfaces, its functions are to provide a alrge surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins. It also provides a pathway for the transport e.g. proteins
11 of 21
What are the features of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Lacks ribosomes on surface and is more tube like in apperance. It synthesises, store and transports lipids and carbpohydrates
12 of 21
What rule does the endoplasmic reticulum follow?
Cells that manufacture and store large quanities of carbohydrates,proteins and lipids have a very extensive ER eg. liver and secretory cells like the epthilial lining of the intestines.
13 of 21
What is the golgi apparatus?
Occur in almost all eukaryotic cells, similar to the SER in structure but more compact.It consists of cisternae and vesiciles. The visicles move to the cell surface and fuse with the membrane to release their contents to the outside.
14 of 21
What are the functions of the golgi apperatus?
Add carbs to proteins to form glycoproteins, produce secretary proteins e.g.pancreas. Secreate carbohydrates like those used to make cell wall in plants.Transport modify and store lipids, form lysosomes
15 of 21
What is a lysosome?
Formed when the visiciles produced by the golgi apperatus contrain enzymes like protese and lipase can be upto 50 in 1.They isolate potentially harmful enzymes for the rest of the cell before relasing them into the outside or into a phagocytic visicl
16 of 21
What are the functions of a lysosome?
Break down material ingulfed by phagocytic cells (WBC) release enzymes into the outside of the cell (exocytosis) to destory material around the cell. Digest worn out organelles so useful chemicals can be resued. Complete breakdown of cell when dead
17 of 21
What is a ribosome?
Small cytoplasmic granules found in all cells. They occur in the cytoplasm or are associated with the RER. 80's type in eukaryotic cells nd 70's in prokaryotic. They have a big and small subuint which contains ribosomal DNA, RNA, and proteins.
18 of 21
What do ribosomes do?
Protein synthesis
19 of 21
What are microvilli?
Finger-like projection of the epithelial lining that increase surface area to allow more sufficent absorbtion in the small intestine
20 of 21
How can you relate cell ultrastructure to function?
Cells with many mitochondria require alot of ATP and have a high metabolic rate. Also the more dense and numerous the cristae the greater the metabolic rate.
21 of 21

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the features nuclear pores and nucleoplasm?

Back

The nuclearpores allow the passage on large molecules like messenger RNA out of the nucleus. The nucleoplasm is the grainy jelly like material which makes up the most of the nucleus

Card 3

Front

What are the features of the chromatic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the features of the nucleolus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the functions of the nucleus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes resources »