The Skeletal and Muscular Systems

  • Created by: hannahx
  • Created on: 05-04-13 12:11
Appendicular Skeleton
The bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles that join to the axial skeleton
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Axial Skeleton
This forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, spine and rib cage
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Ligament
A tough band of fibrous, slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches one bone to another. It binds the ends of bones together to prevent dislocation
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Tendon
A very strong connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bone
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Collagen
A fibrous protein with great strength that is the main component of bone
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Calcium
The mineral stored in bone that keeps it hard and strong. 99% of the body's calcium is stored in bone
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Diaphysis
The shaft or middle part of a long bone
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Epiphysis
The end portion of a long bone
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Bone Marrow
Connective tissue found in the spaces inside bone that is the site of blood cell production and fat storage
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Growth Plate
The area of growing tissue near the end of long bones in children and adolescents, often referred to as the 'epiphyseal plate'. When physical maturity is reached, the growth plate of replaced by solid bone
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Articular Cartilage
A thin layer of glassy-smooth cartilage that is quite spongy and covers the end of bones at a joint. It's function is to absorb shock and to prevent friction between the ends of the bones and joint
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Synovial Fluid
A slippery fluid the consistency of egg-whites that is contained within the joint cavity. It's function is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage in the joint.
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Joint Capsule
A tough fibrous tissue that has two layers, with the fibrous capsule lying outside the synovial membrane. The fibrous capsule helps to strengthen the joint, while the synovial membrane lines the joint and secretes synovial fluid
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Bursa
A flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial fluid that contains a thin film of synovial fluid. It's function is to prevent friction at sites in the body where ligaments, muscles, tendons or bones might rub together
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Meniscus
A wedge of white fibrocartilage that improves the fit between adjacent bone ends, making the joint more stable and reducing wear and tear on joint surfaces
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Pad of Fat
A fatty pad that provides cushioning between the fibrous capsule and a bone or muscle
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Place of Movement
A flat surface running through the body within which different types of movement can take place about different types of synovial joint. There are three main planes that describe the movement of the human body
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Ball and Socket Joint
A ball shaped head of one bone articulates with a cup like socket of an adjacent bone. Movement can occur in three planes. This joint allows the greatest range of movement. Examples from the skeleton are the shoulder and hip
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Hinge Joint
A cylindrical protusion of one bone articulates with a trough-shaped depression of an adjacent bone. Movement is restricted to one plane. This joint allows bending and straightening only. Examples from the skeleton are the elbow, knee and ankle
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Pivot Joint
A rounded or pointed structure of one bone articulates with a ring-shaped structure of an adjacent bone. Movement is restricted to one plane. This joint allows rotation about its longitudinal axis only. E.g. radio-ulna joint, and the spine
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Condyloid Joint
Similar to a ball and socket joint but with much flatter articulating surfaces forming a much shallower joint. Movement can occur in two planes. This joint allows the second greatest range of movement. E.g., the wrist
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Gliding Joint
Articulating surfaces are almost flat and of a similar size Gliding allows movement in three planes, but is severely limited. E.g., the spine. (between the bony processes of the vertebrae in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions)
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Anatomical Position
An upright standing position with head, shoulders, chest, palms of hands, hips, knees and toes facing forwards.
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Anterior
Towards the front of the body
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Posterior
Towards the back of the body
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Superior
Towards the head or upper part of the body
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Inferior
Towards the feet or lower part of the body
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Medial
Towards the middle of the body
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Lateral
Towards the outside of the body
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Flexion
Decreasing the angle of a joint
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Extension
Increasing the angle of a joint
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Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
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Adduction
Movement towards the midline of the body
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Rotation
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis
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Circumduction
The lower (distal) end of the bone, moves in a circle; it is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
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Lateral Flexion
Bending the head for trunk sideways
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Plantar Flexion
Moving the foot downwards, away from the tibia
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Dorsiflexion
Moving the foot upwards, towards the tibia
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Supination
Facing the palm of the hand forwards (while in the anatomical position)
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Pronation
Facing the palm of the hand backwards (while in the anatomical position)
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Origin
Point of attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contractions
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Insertion
Point of attachment of a muscle that tends to move towards the origin during muscular contraction
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Antagonistic muscle action
As one muscle shortens to produce movement, another muscle lengthens to allow that movement to take place
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Agonist Muscle
The muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at a joint
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Antagonist Muscle
The muscle that has an action opposite to that of the agonist and helps in the production of a coordinated movement
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Core Stability
The ability of your trunk to support the forces from your arms and legs during different types of physical activity. It enables joints and muscles to work in their safest and most efficient positions, therefore reducing the risk of injury
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Rotator Cuff
The 'supraspinatus', 'infraspinatus', 'teres minor' and 'subscapularis' muscles make up the rotator cuff. They work to stabilise the shoulder joint to prevent the larger muscles from displacing the head of the humerus during physical activity
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Isotonic Contraction
Tension is produced in the muscle while there is a change in muscle length. It is a dynamic contraction because the joint will move
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Concentric Contraction
A type of isotonic contraction that involves the muscle shortening while producing tension
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Isometric Contraction
Tension is produced in the muscle but there is no change in muscle length. It is a static contraction because the joint will stay in the same position
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Eccentric Contraction
A type of contraction that involves the muscle lengthening while producing tension
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Muscle Fibre
A long cylindrical muscle cell. Muscle fibres are held together in bundles to make up an individual skeletal muscle
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Slow Twitch Muscle Fibre
A slow muscle fibre associated with aerobic work. It produces a small force over a long period of time: high resistance to fatigue. It is suited to endurance based activities, e.g. marathon running
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Fast Twitch Muscle Fibre
A type of muscle associated with anaerobic work. It produces a large force over a short period of time: low resistance to fatigue. It is suited to power-based activities, e.g. sprinting, power lifting.
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Aerobic Exercise
Is performed in the presence of oxygen at a sub-maximal intensity over a prolonged period of time, e.g. rowing
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Anaerobic Exercise
Is performed in the absence of oxygen at a maximal intensity that can only be sustained for a short period of time due to the build up of lactic acid, e.g. sprinting
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Osteoporosis
Weakening of bones caused by a reduction in bone density making them prone to fracture
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Sedentary
An inactive lifestyle with little or no exercise
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Osteoarthritis
A degenerative joint disease caused by a loss of articular cartilage at the ends of long bones in a joint. It causes pain, swelling and reduced motion in your joints
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Bone Spurs
Are small projections of bone that form around joints due to damage to the joint's surface, most commonly caused from the onset of osteoarthritis. They limit movement and cause pain in the joint
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Joint Stability
This refers o the resistance offered by various musculo-skeletal tissues that surround a joint
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Muscle Tone
The continual state of partial contraction of a muscle that helps to maintain posture
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

This forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, spine and rib cage

Back

Axial Skeleton

Card 3

Front

A tough band of fibrous, slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches one bone to another. It binds the ends of bones together to prevent dislocation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A very strong connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bone

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A fibrous protein with great strength that is the main component of bone

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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