The Self

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Every person is one-off as they are an individual.
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The ability to make our own decisions that isn't influenced by external and internal factors.
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This is the opposite of freewill. People cannot make their own decisions as it is influence by internal and external factors.
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Core theory name?
Humanistic theory of The Self
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Who where the researchers in the core theory?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers,
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What was their aim?
To challenge the behaviorists (learning through imitation and conditioning), and the followers of Freud (psychoanalysts - the control of the unconscious mind)
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What did Rogers find out on self concept?
Our self concept is how we view ourselves. If we are told that we are a good laugh, we think ourselves as funny.
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What is social roles?
This is who you are to other people: student, sister, daughter, friend.
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What did Rogers think on our self concept and self esteem?
The gap between our self concept and our self esteem is called incongrurent. If you have a big gap, you have low self esteem; and if you have a small gap, you have a high self esteem.
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What is unconditional positive regard?
Where you give someone love and care without expecting anything back - no string attached.
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How can you change this?
By treating them differently
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How can you raise their self esteem?
By giving them unconditional positive regard.
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What is self actualisation?
Where you have become your ideal self.
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How can you achieve self actualisation?
By using the hierarchy of needs: Biological and physical needs, Safety needs, Belonging and love needs, self esteem needs and self actualisation.
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To continue to the next level in hierarchy of needs, you need to do what?
Complete the level below
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Who came up with the hierarchy of needs and self actualisation?
Abraham Maslow
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Give a criticism.
Rogers only used own research which was based on unrepresentative samples - Lacks generlisability
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Give another criticism.
Many of the ideas are vague and difficult to measure - too subjective
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Give a final criticism.
Focuses of too much on the individual - no one is the same - lacks usefulness as it is hard to predict future behaviour
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What is the alternative theory called?
The Trait theory
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Who researched it?
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What does this theory support, nature/nurture?
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Why is it nature?
Because this theory is scientific as it is generlisable on people sharing traits they have in common
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What does Eysenck suggest?
It has a genetic basis and can be explained through biology.
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What is the part of the brain that deals with our personality?
Reticular activating system.
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Where is the Reticular activating system?
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What is extraversion?
How outgoing or sociable you are. Very outing if you're extraversion.
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What is introversion?
How quiet or reserved you are. Very quiet if introversion.
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What is stable?
How emotionally stable you are. Very stable in you have a secure emotion.
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What is neruoticism?
You aren't emotionally stable. Very anxious or moody.
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What is the N score?
Neuroticism and emtionally stable
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What is the E score?
Extroversion and Introversion.
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Give the 4 different types of personality there is.
Melancholic, Sanguine, Phlegmatic and Choleric.
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Who did the core theory? Date?
Van Houtte and Jarvis (1995)
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What was the aim?
If pets are good for people - to investigate whether pets play a part in the development in pre-adolescent people.
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What was the hypothesis?
The pet owners having a pet before adolescent would have higher autonomy (freedom) and self esteem than non-pet owners.
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What was the method?
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Who were the participants?
USA, 120 - 71 boys, 59 girls, aged: 8-13.
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Give the procedure.
School gave permission for this and permission from parents. Right-to-withdraw made clear. Divided into: pets and non-pet owners, siblings, parents occupation and parents martial status.
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What was the design?
Matched-based paired design.
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What were the 4 questionnaires about? scales?
autonomy - 1-4, self concept - 1-5, self esteem - 1-4 and attachment to pet - 1-7.
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What was the scale as 1?
strongly agree.
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What happened after the experiment?
They were debriefed.
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What were the results?
Pet owners had high self esteem rather than pet owners. They 11yrs had best self esteem. Pet owners have high autonomy (independence)
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What was the conclusion?
Pets had a big impact on children's lives as they move into adolescent. Pets help with low self esteem- they give unconditional positive regard.
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Give a criticism
Ignores roles of nature, suggests we give unconditional positive regard to develop - reductionist
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Give another criticism
It is ethnocentric, only in USA - generlisable
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Give a final criticism
Age bias, only ages 8-13 - less generlisable
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What is the applications called?
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Who came up with this type of counselling?
Carl Rogers
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What is the counselling called?
Client-centered counselling.
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What does the counselor do? 3 things
1. Give unconditional positive regard. 2. Believe the client can self actualise. 3. Has to show empathy.
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What techniques does the counselor use? 4 things
1. open questions - no why. 2. Paraphrasing - repeat what the client has said but in different words. 3. Summarsing - give the main issues. 4. Focusing - tell the client to pick out the main issue
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Give two other types of counselling.
Relationship Counselling and Careers Guidence
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The ability to make our own decisions that isn't influenced by external and internal factors.

Card 3




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Card 4


Core theory name?


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Card 5


Who where the researchers in the core theory?


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