The Second Crusade

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  • Created by: Rose
  • Created on: 14-04-14 14:40
What triggered the second crusade?
The loss of Edessa in N. Eastern Syria 1144 by Zengi
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What happened at the fall of Edessa 1144?
Zengi pounced when Count of Joscelin was absent + laid siege to the city. He set up formidable defensive fortifications, constructed tunnels + by late december had burrowed deep under the walls. Set fire to the foundations in tunnels.
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What did the fall of Edessa fulfil?
It fulfilled Jihad propagandists
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Where did relief forces for Edessa come from?
Jerusalem and Antioch.
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Who is ruling the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1144?
Milisende + Baldwin III. However, when he came of age she refused to step aside. In 1151/2 Baldwin III began to demand to rule alone; a civil war broke out where she was trapped in Jerusalem's citadel and forced to back down.
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What were the dates of other small expeditions in the holy land?
1107-8, 1120-28, 1128-9
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Who voiced their desires for new crusades in Spring 1145?
Pope Eugenius III + Louis IV.
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What was the name of the papal bull called in 1145?
Quantum Praedecessores - it means to live up to your forefathers. The people on the first crusade had become enshrined as a true manifestation of the divine will and heroism.
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What had the first crusade done?
Percolated deep into physical, spiritual and political culture of western europe
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Where there any monarchs on the first crusade?
Only King Sigurd of Norway in 1109-110
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Why was Louis VI ineffective on the second crusade?
He was already a mediocre monarch . Also, his personal desires to go to the holy land (burnt down Vitry church with 1,300 people in it) meant he was never intent on taking Edessa, he wanted to go to Jerusalem.
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What did Eleanor believe would happen if she went to Jerusalem?
granted a son. (Louis and Eleanor married 1137)
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Why was Zengi regarded as a brutal ruler?
Cared little of faith + banished/killed members of his entourage and castrated their sons.
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What happened at Vezelay, Easter Sunday 1146?
French nobility gathered to hear Abbot Bernard's sermon - saw it as a global spiritual mission to evangelise society with papal reformist character. 'Praise of New Knighthood' justification for killing
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What was Divina Dispensatione in 1147?
St. Bernard expanding the scope of the second crusade - holy war on three fronts, Iberia, Baltic and Holy land. Totally convinced of success.
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What did St. Bernard do in Autumn 1146?
Went on a 7 month tour to preach in low countries + Germany. Healed 235 cripples in Flanders, unleashed anti-semitic pogroms.
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Was Conrad a good choice?
Yes and no. in 1124/5 went to fight christian cause (highly skilled) but wasn't religiously zealous, only went as Duke Welf of Bavaria had gone too. Also very arrogant and didn't think before he did something aka impatient to march in Asia Minor
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Why was their tension between Manuel and Conrad?
He was a rival 'emperor' to Manuel + the bad discipline of his 35,000 army caused tension, especially since the Greeks hadn't invited them into their land. Feared crusader aggression.
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What did the Byzantines do to benefit the second crusade?
Offered to transport them across Bosporus (only because didn't want them meeting up with French).
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Why didn't Manuel want another crusade?
He feared Raymond of Antioch would use it to shrug off Byzantine overlordship. Conrad also showed aggression. Manuel had secret treaty with Ma'sud Sultan of Rum.
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What happened at 2nd Battle of Dorylaeum 1147?
Germans split into 2 forces (pilgrims slower route, king + bulk of knights directly toward N. Syria). Over optimistic march pace, Greek treachery, lack of supplies made a crushing defeat by Ma'sud Sultan of Run.
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What successes did the armies have?
After 2nd battle of Dorylaeum Conrad + Louis meet to march round coast. Louis marches inland along Meander valley where mid-december 1147 they uprooted Turkish forces.
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What happened 6th of Jan 1148?
Geoffrey of Rancon commanded Vangaurd over MOUNT CADMUS. The french army around 2,000 and baggage train about 6 miles, meant couldn't hold proper formation + loss of communication between contingent. Turks attacked, King tried to charge but too late.
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What did Louis do after defeat in 1148?
Louis abandons his infantry and takes ships to Antioch. Leaves the Knights Templar in charge of the army.
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What happens when Louis VI and Eleanor arrive in Antioch Feb 1148?
Raymond wants the 2nd crusade so it can tackle neighbouring Aleppo and shrug off Byzantine overlordship. Louis wants to go to Jerusalem and not campaign in north, he's exhausted after Asia Minor and has lost men and royal household troops. HOSTILITY
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When is the council of Palmarea and what was it?
June 24th 1148, near Acre. Edessa not an option as overland route blocked by Seljuks of Rum. Could've taken Ascalon or Aleppo (base to attack Edessa) but chose Damascus, potential threat
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What happened at Damascus 1148?
Orchids surrounded the city, thought city would surrender once they broke through. Underestimated Adath Militia and Anur. They went to the other side of the city but ran out of food + couldn't return to orchids so broke camp after 4 days.
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What would happen if the Crusaders waited it out?
The longer resistance hardened the more time Nur al Din had to march south and relieve the city. If he arrived they'd be caught between them and killed. They would've need a QUICK VICTORY.
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Aftermath of second crusade?
Conrad went home. Louis VI and Eleanor remained in Holy Land for a year.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened at the fall of Edessa 1144?

Back

Zengi pounced when Count of Joscelin was absent + laid siege to the city. He set up formidable defensive fortifications, constructed tunnels + by late december had burrowed deep under the walls. Set fire to the foundations in tunnels.

Card 3

Front

What did the fall of Edessa fulfil?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where did relief forces for Edessa come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who is ruling the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1144?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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