The rise of the Nazi Party and its consolidation of power. 1929-1934

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 31-05-14 17:20
When did Germany's fighting in WWI come to an end?
11th November 1918
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Who were the two presidens during the Weimar period?
Friedrich Ebert (1918-25) and Paul von Hindenburg (1925-34)
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What were the 5 main weaknesses of the Weimar Republic?
1. PR system of voting 2. appointment of Chancellor 3. Frequent changes of government 4. Power of the president 5. Coalition Government
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Why was the appointment of Chancellor a weakness of Weimar?
President Hindenburg used article 48 which allowed him to appoint chancellors even if they did not belong to the largest party.
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How many elections were there during Weimar rule?
9
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What was article 48?
The constitution to declare a 'state of emergency' and rule by presidential decree. this meant the president could make decisions without the approval of the Reichstag
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What was the problem of a coalition party?
IT was difficult for any one party to earn a majority
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When was the treat of versailles signed?
28th June 1919
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What were territorial terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
German lost 13% of its land - 6 million citizens and colonies.
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What were the military terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
1. German army was limited to 100,000 men 2. Rhineland was demilitarised 3. Forbidden any ownership of war weapons
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What were the financial terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
1. Clause 231 - pay money as reparations £6600 million was fixed in 1921
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What were the political terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Accept full blame of WWI
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Who fond the German Worker's Party and when?
1919 - Anton Dexler
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When and what did Hitler do when he replaced Dexler?
July 1921 - Adopted the title Führer and changed the name of the party to National Socialist German Workers Party. Developed a salute and swastika
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What was the Membership of the NSDAP in 1920?
1,100
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What was the Membership of the NSDAP in 1923?
55,000
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What did Hitler set up in 1921?
The SA which was led by Ernest Rohm and were in charge for protecting Hitler and Nazi speakers
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Why was the political atmosphere chaotic in the early periods of Weimar?
1. 1919 Communist revolution 2. 1923 French and belgium troops marched into Ruhur after Germany failed to pay 2nd instalment 3. Collapse i currency and hyper inflation
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After his release, what did the Nazi's do from 1924
1. SS - bodyguards 2. Hitler Jugend 3. Attract support form all classes 4. 1925 - 27,000 members 1928 - 100,000
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Describe how the economic depression effected Germany?
1. Demands for consumer goods fell sharply - unemployment 2. International trade began to contract., German exports fell rapidly 3. Factories closed. 4 Unemployment 6.2m 1932 5. Homelessness
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What was the statistic on unemployment in Germany?
4/10 Germans were without a job
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What happened to the membership of the Nazi's following the Wall Street Crash?
Sharp increase as Weimar Politicians were doing too little and too late.
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Who was appointed Chancellor by Hindenburg in March 1930?
Heinrich Brüning
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Why did Brüning's government become unpopular?
It ws forced to cut unemployment benefits and Brüning became known as the 'hunger chancellor'
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How many seats did the Nazi's secure in July 1932?
230- largest part in Reichstag
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In March 1932 what were the results of the presidential elections?
Hindenburg: 19.3 million Hitler: 13.4 million
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Who was appointed Chancellor in 1932 before Hitler?
von Papen and von Schleicher
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What did von Papen persuade Hindenburg in January 1933?
To appoint a Nazi-Nationalist party with Hitler being Chancellor and von Papen as vice Chancellor
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When did Adolf Hitler become Chancellor?
30th January 1933 through legal and democratic means.
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What were the 5 reasons for the Nazi electoral success?
1. Impact of Depression 2. Appeal of hitler 3. Use of Propaganda 4. Financial Support 5. The Use of the SA
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What were Hitler's promises to big industrialists, Middle class and Upper Class?
Protection against communism. (I Curb growth of trade unionsts ) (M: Restore living standards) (U: Allow them to keep their wealth and status)
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What were Hitler's promises to the working class?
1. Tackle unemployment 2. Decent Wage 3. Protect Worker's rights
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What were Hitler's farmers to women?
1. Emphasis on family life and moral values 2. Children Welfare
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When did the Reichstag fire take place?
27 February 1933
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Who caused the Reichstag Fire?
Young Dutch Communist, Marinus van der Lubbe
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What was the importance of the Reichstag Fire?
1. Hitler argued that Communists were starting a revolution 2. PErsuaded Hitler to sign the 'Decree for the Protection of the People and State' 3. Gave Hitler the power to restrict freed of speech 4. Communist newspapers were banned.
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Why was Hitler disappointed in the 5th March 1933 elections?
The Nazi party had only won 288 seats and lacked a majority. He need 2/3 of the seats in order to secure the passing of his Enabling Bill.
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When was the Enabling Bill passed?
23rd March 1933
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What helped the enabling Bill be passed?
1. Hitler banned the Communists from attending 2. Absentees were counted as present and therefore in favour of the bill 3. Promises were made by Hitler o the Catholic Centre party to secure their party.
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What were the results of the enabling act?
444 votes in favour 94 against
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What is gleichschaltung?
Nazi Policy of forced coordination, bringing all social, economic and political activities under state control.
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What were the uses of the Enabling Act?
1. Purge of the Civil Service 2.Banning Trade Unions 3. Band on Political Partied 4. Control of the Press 5. Control of the states
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What law was passed on the 7th April 1933?
Law for the restoration of the Professional Civil Service - Removed Jews and political opponents of the Nazis from their posts in the civil service
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What happened to Trade Unions on the 2nd May 1933?
Trade Unions were banned and replaced with the German Labour Drong (DAF)
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What law was passed on the 14th July 1933?
Law against the Formation of Parties - Nazi party the only legal political party.
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What was the Reich Press Law?
October 1933 - Law imposed to strict control and censorship of the press.
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Why was the SA a threat?
1Ernest Rohm wanted to incorporate the army into the SA.2 Rohm wanted more government interference in the running of the country 3. Pushed for a social revolution
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When did the Night of the Long Knives occur?
30th June 1934
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What were key events of the Night of the Long Knives?
1. Hitler needed the support of the army and therefore used the SS to carry out a bloody purge 2. 400 'enemies of state' were arrested and shot by the SS 3. Roehm, von Schleicher, von Kahr
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What were the 4 key important outcomes of the Night of the Long Knives?
1. Eradicated would-be opponents to Hitler's rule 2. Secured support of the army 3. Relegated the SA to a minor role 4. Provided Himmler the opportunity to expand the SS
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When did President Hindenburg pass away?
2nd August 1934
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What did Hitler after the death of Hindenburg?
Made the German army swear on oath of loyalty to the Führer. 2, Combine the roles of presidents and Chancellor
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Card 2

Front

Who were the two presidens during the Weimar period?

Back

Friedrich Ebert (1918-25) and Paul von Hindenburg (1925-34)

Card 3

Front

What were the 5 main weaknesses of the Weimar Republic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was the appointment of Chancellor a weakness of Weimar?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many elections were there during Weimar rule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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