The reign of Edward VI, 1547-53

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Was Edward's accession difficult?
Edward Seymour (his uncle) seized control of the government so he had a trouble free accession.
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What was Somerset's relationship with supporters?
He relied on the support of Archbishop Cranmer (his brother) and of Sir William Paget. Somerset rewarded supporters with promotions & grants of Crown lands.
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What was Somerset's relationship with the Privy Council?
He overthrew the Regency Council & enforced his power through his control over Privy Chamber through appointment of his supporters, some members of the council felt resentment at the protectorate
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What did fears of breakdown of law and order lead to?
Archbishop Cranmer created the Homily on Obedience (stressed the moral, religious and legal need to obey lawfully constituted authority
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What happened with the relationship between Somerset and his brother (Thomas Seymour)?
Thomas Seymour was angered at being left out of the Regency council, he sought to marry Princess Elizabeth and tried to plot with Earl of Southampton against Somerset who had little choice but to bring treason charges against him.
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What did Somerset want to do?
He wanted to unite the thrones of England and Scotland by enforcing the marriage between Edward VI and the infant Mary Queen of Scots. He also wanted to build forts in the borders and south of Scotland and to force them into submission.
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What were the problems with Somerset's goals and actions?
The forts were expensive to garrison. He also underestimated the extent of cooperation between Scotland and France and failed to blockade the Firth of Forth properly, enabling the French relieve Edinburgh.
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What were the consequences of Somerset's actions?
·engaged in a military strategy which was unaffordable at the time of financial pressures ·paid for the war by debasing the coinage- raised £537,000 but heightened inflationary pressures and added to social distress
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What was England's relationship like with France when Somerset was in power?
Deteriorating relationship with France- threat of war & prospect of a French invasion of southern England ·He was already vulnerable due to rebellions of 1549- heightened resentment in Privy Council about his autocratic style of government
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What were religious policies like under Edward and Somerset?
·Under Edward they moved in the direction of Protestantism ·they proved cautious under Somerset- exemplified by the moderate Book of Common Prayer written in 1549 by Cranmer (anxious to avoid an increase in religious tension) ·more radical approach
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What was Ash Wednesday?
Ridley denounced images of saints & use of holy water in process of sparking off acts of iconoclasm in London
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What is the definition of Injunction?
Orders issued for the implementation of Church policy either by the Crown exercising the royal supremacy or by individual bishops.
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What were the 1538 injunctions?
·reasserted by Cromwell ·more radical ·forbade the burning of lights, destruction of images including stained glass, abolitions of all processions, discouraged bell ringing & attacks on traditional practices at Candlemas, Ash Wednesday & Psalm Sunday
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What heavily influenced the religious changes?
·Somerset appears to be a genuine convert to Protestantism ·the King's Protestantism ·Somerset welcomed Protestant radicals such as Harper and Bacon
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What religious policies were passed in 1547 under Somerset?
·denunciation of images in London- reflected radical attitudes & was supported within government & by Protestant activists who engaged in iconoclasm
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What was iconoclasm?
The destruction of images within church.
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What religious policies were passed in 1547 under Somerset?
·injunctions of 1538 reissued- attacked many features of popular Catholicism
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What religious policies were passed in 1547 under Somerset?
·Dissolution of the Chantries- partly to get money for expensive foreign policy, partly because purgatory was no longer in official doctrines: no need to pray for dead ·chantries were places of social meet ups, charities, feasts & celebrations
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What religious policies were passed in 1549 under Somerset?
·New Book of Common Prayer (in English) ·excluded elevation of the house & introduced communion of both kinds, considered quite moderate as it was based on a Catholic book
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What religious policies were passed in 1549 under Somerset?
·Act of Uniformity ·Book of Common Prayer is now the only legal form of worship, using all other texts is now illegal ·No Latin Churches
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What did allowing the Eucharist to remain imply?
·implied traditional Catholic transubstantiation ·could be considered extreme as the sacrificial element of Catholicism was reduced & Cranmer was now more radical ·experience of mass= transformed
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Was iconoclasm successful?
·by September 1547 most images were removed from St Paul's Cathedral in London ·most parishes complied reluctantly ·many parishes hid images rather than destroy them
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What were the various reasons for the major rebellions of 1549?
·Resentment of tax ·social conflict ·enclosures ·taxes
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What were some of the major rebellions of 1549?
·worst year of the Tudor reign ·major rebellions in South West & East Anglia ·Somerset's government struggled to cope- overstretched resources
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What was the Western Rebellion?
·also known as the "Prayer Book Rebellion" ·motivated by religious grievances ·rebels wanted last 15 years of religious reform reversed & wanted traditional Catholicism back ·not 100% religious- distrust between peasants & landowners, sheep tax
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What was the Kett's Rebellion?
·not religiously motivated- many rebels attended services which used the Book of Common Prayer ·mainly motivated by social conflict & class differences ·Kett maintained order over the rebels- able to negotiate with civic authorities
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What specific issues does McCullough identify of the Kett rebellion?
·hatred of local government officials ·resentment of landowners who denied peasants access to the Norfolk Foldcourse (right to graze sheep on enclosed area of common land) ·pent up frustration regarding the weak rule of the Howards
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Was Somerset a popular leader?
·gained enemies due to dictatorial style ·had haters due to style of running government & failing policies
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Who tried to plot against Somerset?
·Earl of Warwick, Earl of Arundel, Lord St John ·they tried to get Princess Mary's support- she refused ·they were ready to plot by October with most of the council & Cranmer on their side
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Did Somerset survive the plot against him?
·he ordered Lord Russel & Sir William Herbert to send troops over to protect him; they refused ·council made arrests for Somerset's important followers ·Somerset surrendered as he was promised for not being charged treason
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How did Warwick become President of the council?
·the coup against Somerset (protectorate) made him more heard of ·he became President of the Council
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What was Warwick's second coup?
·to rid the conservatives (Southampton, Arundel & Cranmer) ·making a stand for Protestantism
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What happened in October 1551?
Warwick promoted himself to Duke of Northumberland.
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What did Paget do?
·made vital guidelines to control the council but was not included in the decision making ·Sir William Cecil (Somerset's man) became key administrator
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What happened to Somerset when Warwick became Duke of Northumberland?
·he was re-admitted to the council ·he tried to create another coup alongside Paget- Somerset was executed, Paget was sent to the tower
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What actions did Northumberland take?
·ended wars with Scotland and France ·improved England's financial base (secured £!33,333 from France for return of Boulogne) ·increased revenue from church by melting down church plate for bullion
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What are others' views on religion under Northumberland?
·Loades & MacCullough (biographers) suggested he was protestant since 1532 ·Cranmer thought he was more leaned to radicalism since 1552, was proved in Feb 1550 when he dismissed Southampton.. etc
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What was religion under Northumberland?
·wanted to continue Somerset's protestant reforms ·was influenced by senior clergy, the king would destroy worship
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What religious changes occurred under Northumberland?
·removals of the altar replaced by communion tables ·Conservative George Day & Bishop of Chichester refused order & were sent to the tower ·Conservative bishops were replaced by protestant ·Protestantism confirmed in 42 articles of religion
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What happened in 1552 in religion under Northumberland?
·Act of Uniformity= publication of a changed Book of Common Prayer
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What were the key religious changes under Northumberland?
·removal of conservative ceremonies ·rewrite of baptism & burial services ·replacing wafer by ordinary bread ·band on 'popish' clothes ·restriction on church music
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What was the impact of religious change?
·financial difficulties- bishops wanted their share from the crown ·by 1547 20% of Londoners were Protestant; Catholicism remained strong in the north ·decline in church attendance= manpower shortage
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What occurred with the succession under Northumberland?
·Edward became ill ·Northumberland did not want Princess Mary to reign & make England Catholic
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Card 2

Front

What was Somerset's relationship with supporters?

Back

He relied on the support of Archbishop Cranmer (his brother) and of Sir William Paget. Somerset rewarded supporters with promotions & grants of Crown lands.

Card 3

Front

What was Somerset's relationship with the Privy Council?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did fears of breakdown of law and order lead to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened with the relationship between Somerset and his brother (Thomas Seymour)?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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