The Provisional Government

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How did the allies react to Russia becoming a republic and why?
Well, because now the world war fight for democracy seemed legitimate as Russia was no longer an autocracy
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Name the problems faced by the provisional government
The legitimacy of government, the fact that there were two governments, social and economic conditions, the peasantry and the war
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What was the composition of the Provisional Government?
Previous members of the state Duma who had formed the progressive bloc to put pressure on the Tsar for reform
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What type of groups were the Octobrists and Kadets?
Minority groups
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Who was Alexander Kerensky?
A lawyer who was the only representative of a radical party within the State Duma
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Were there members of the SR's and SDP in the provisional government?
No
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Who made up the Petrograd Soviet?
Workers, Soldiers and Sailors
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What was "order number one" and who created it?
It required that all officers be elected by their own troops and the Petrograd Soviet created it
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What was the short term effects of Order Number one?
It undermined the authority of officers and many officers were dismissed
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What was the long term effect of Order Number One?
By the June Offensive the army was in shambles over authority and so wasn't prepared for an attack
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How were major policy decisions made?
Both the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet had to be in agreement
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Which politician linked the two bodies together?
Alexander Kerensky
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Who became prime minister and head of the provisional government in July 1917?
Kerensky
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How did the two bodies view each other?
With Suspicion
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Which body was more liberal?
The Provisional Government
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Which body was more radical and left wing?
The Petrograd Soviet
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Which body contained SR's and the SDP?
The Petrograd Soviet
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As time went on, what happened to radical groups in the Petrograd soviet
They gained more influence
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What was the biggest radical group in the Petrograd Soviet?
The Bolsheviks
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What did order number one say with regard to the Provisional Government?
That the Provisional Government couldn't make decisions about the army without the consent of the Petrograd Soviet
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Therefore, who had effective control of the army?
The Petrograd Soviet
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What did the allies do after the 1917 revolution?
Sent over politicians and bankers to speak with the provisional government and ensure the continued involvement of Russia in the war
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What did the allied bankers offer Russia?
Continued loans if they continued to contribute to the war
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What did many people within the provisional government think about the war?
That Russia had a duty to continue to fight Germany
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What did the foreign minister Milyukov think regarding the war?
That Russias future lay with victory over Germnany
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For a time, what happened to morale in the army and why?
It improved because the soldiers were not not fighting for autocracy, they were fighting for democracy
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Why did morale begin to deteriorate again?
Because there were still supply problems and the economy continued to deteriorate
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What was the "address to the people of the world"?
The Petrograd Soviet's statement regarding its intentions for the war
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What was the Petrograd Soviet's view of the war?
That it should be continued only to prevent Germany from crushing the revolution and for no other reason
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What were these "other reasons"?
E.g for gaining money from defeated countries and for gaining land
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Did the aims of the Petrograd Soviet for the war clash with that of the Provisional Government?
Yes
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What did the Provisional government want to gain?
Land at the expense of the ottoman empire
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What did the Provisional Government do with regard to the war which angered the Petrograd Soviet?
Assured the Allies that it would continue fighting on the same terms as befor
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What events led to the resignation of Milyukov and Guchkov (war minister)?
Protests against the war
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What did the Provisional Government launch in June 1917 and why?
The June Offensive in order to gain support from the allies and at home
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Where was the June Offensive?
In the South Western Front in Ukraine
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Who was the June offesive aimed at?
The Austro-Hungarians
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What happened in the first two days of the June offensive?
The troops advanced well
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What had happened by the 18th of June?
The offensive had begun to break down and the counter attacks led to mass desertion.
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Who was Brusilov?
The commander general of the June offensive
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What had Brusilov warned the Provisional Government of?
The questionable morale of his troops
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How many deserters did the elite eleventh regiment of the army capture?
12,000
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What did deserting troops begin doing?
Looting and firing on their own troops
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What started to happen from mid-june?
The army began to collapse
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What did the deterioration of the army lead to?
The July Days
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What were the July Days?
A series of riots and protests in Petrograd similar to that of the February Revolution
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What did the July Days lead to?
The collapse of the Provisional Government
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What happened to the Provisional Government after the July Days?
It reformed with Kerensky as its leader
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Where did the Provisional government have control over?
Petrograd and other major cities
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Where didn't the provisional government have control over?
The countryside
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What did the peasants begin to do in the countryside?
They began to take the law into their own hands
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What did the peasants do in regard to the landowners?
Started to take over their land and engaged in violence against them
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How many complaints did the provisional government receive about illegal attacks in June 1917?
Over 700
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What happened when deserting peasant soldiers returned home from the front?
They aided the redistribution of land
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What had begun in the coutryside?
A peasant economic revolution
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Did Lenin know about the revolution?
No
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How did Lenin return to Russia?
By accepting transportation from Germany
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Did Lenin want a worldwide revolution or a Russian revolution?
A worldwide revolution
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What did Lenin do as he got off of the train?
Gave a 90 minute speech condemning the provisional government and demanding a socialist revolution
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What followed from Lenin's speech?
The April Theses
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What did Lenin do with Marx's ideas in his speech and in his April Thesus
Rewrote them
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How did Lenin Gain support?
By exploiting the unpopularity of the war
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What was the April theses also aimed to be?
A piece of propaganda to gain the Bolsheviks support
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What was Lenin's catchphrase?
Peace, land and bread
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What did the April Theses say regarding the war?
That it should be ended immediately as it was greedy
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What did the April Theses call for regarding the peasantry?
That power be handed over to them
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What did the April Theses call for regarding the Provisional Government?
That it should be ended immediately
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What did the April Theses call for regarding salaries?
That the salaries of an official shouldn't exceed that of a worker
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What did the April Theses call for regarding the banks?
The abolition of individual banks and the creation of one union bank
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What did the April Theses call for regarding estates?
That all land should be confiscated from land owners
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What did the April Theses call for regarding production of goods?
That they should come under soul soviet control
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How did the April Theses play on the make up of the Provisional Government
It highlighted that the Provisonal Government was made up of land owners and the wealthy that couldn't represent their views
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What had the Provisional Government failed to do that the April theses then addressed?
Failed to address the land and food problems
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How did the Bolsheviks first try to take down the Provisional government?
Through mass demonstrations
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What did Lenin do to try and ensure that this happened?
Sent out Bolsheviks to the factories to rally support
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What went wrong with this fist attempted take over?
Very few people demonstrated and they quickly dispersed by the police
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How did the Bolsheviks attempt to take over the Prvisional Government for the second time?
They tried to play on the failure of the June offensive and exploit this
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What went wrong with this second attempted take over?
The Bolsheviks failed to gain the support of the Petrograd Soviet
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Who planned the July days?
Lenin
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What were the causes of the July days?
The failure of the June Offensive, the April Theses and the return of Lenin
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What happened during the July days?
See timeline
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What did the July Days accidentaly cause?
The Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet to unite
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After the July days what was Lenin branded?
A traitor and a German spy
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What happened to members if the Bolshevik party after the July days?
They were either in prison or on the run
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the problems faced by the provisional government

Back

The legitimacy of government, the fact that there were two governments, social and economic conditions, the peasantry and the war

Card 3

Front

What was the composition of the Provisional Government?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of groups were the Octobrists and Kadets?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who was Alexander Kerensky?

Back

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