What is Somerset's success in power often attributed to?
Support of Paget
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What must any judgements on Somerset's character and capabilities be based upon to be valid?
Achievements or lack of
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What do some historians see Somerset as?
Tudor soldier and statesman focused on wars with Scotland and France
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What was the old view of Somerset?
Genuine reformer and sympathetic to plight of poor
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What is the more recent view of Somerset?
Doubts over whether he had any interest in social reform and claims he was arrogant and refused to accept advice; also enriched himself with confiscated Church property
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What can Somerset be regarded as being?
No more greedy or sympathetic to the poor than his fellow artistocrats
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What shows that Somerset was no more greedy than his fellow aristocrats?
In February 1547 other Council members just as quick to accept lands and titles
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Who trusted Paget?
Somerset and Henry VIII
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Who did not trust Paget?
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Why did Northumberland distrust Paget?
Due to his loyal support of Somerset in 1549 with the coup d'etat
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What is a coup d'etat?
Sudden illegal seizure of government, usually by small group of existing state establishment
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What did Northumberland initially employ Paget as?
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What was Paget's religious beliefs?
Unknown - various views by contemporaries as either Protestant or conservative; truth is kept religious convictions to himself
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What is evidence of Somerset's tactlessness and arrogance?
Paget told of Si Richard Lee who was rebuked by Somerset and "came to my chamber weeping"
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What caused resentment towards Somerset by the nobles?
Likely that many resented being treated in this way by a mere Protector while would have accepted it by Henry VIII
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What can be seen as evidence of Somerset's ruthlessness?
Great territory in Wiltshire and Somerset at expense of Crown and decimated bishopric of Bath and Wells
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What, alongside Somerset's position, affected the role he played?
His personality - he was determined to exercise full authority
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Where did Somerset's power come from?
Letters of patent by Edward, granting him quasi-royal power
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When was Somerset granted letters of patent?
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What did the letters of patent mean for Somerset?
Could rule almost independently
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What did members of the Council complain soon after Somerset's ascendancy?
That he ruled in an authoritarian manner
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When was Parliament called during the reign of Edward VI?
Every year except 1551
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How did Somerset mainly rule?
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What was the traditional use of proclamations?
Kings had ruled by proclamations while parliament not sitting, then when caled Parliament would examine and ratify laws
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What distinguished Somerset from previous rulers?
The extent to which he used proclamations
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How many proclamations did Somerset issue in his three years as leader?
More than 70
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What has Somerset's use of proclamations led John Guy to describe him as?
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What did Somerset do regarding the dry stamp?
He took sole control if it, using it alone
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Originally, what were the terms for the use of the dry stamp?
Had to be supervised by four men
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What did Somerset insist regarding the King's signature?
That it be countersigned by his own
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Somerset bypassed the Privy Council. Who did he consult instead?
His own servants
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What did the fact that Somerset bypass the Privy Council lead to?
Considerable opposition by ambitious men like Warwick.
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What was the influence of Somerset's failed policies?
His mishandling of foreign and domestic policy paved way for removal in 1550
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What did Somerset's decision to rule without reference of Privy Council and landed elites lead to?
Left him exposed to charges of arrogance and incompetence
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What was the significance of the landed elites?
They were vital in the management of local government
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What did Council members accuse Somerset of at his trial in 1552?
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How had Somerset seized power?
Through his contacts in the Privy Chamber
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Somerset bypassed the Privy Council often. What did he use instead?
Relationship with King and his own household staff
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What might be a sign of the Council's significance?
That Somerset was deeply resented within and beyond the Council for not seeking their advice properly. This contributed to his fall from power.
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Of the leading members of Somerset's household, how many were members of the king's Council?
Just one - Smith
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What did the fact that the succession of a minor in 1547 did not lead to an immediate crisis not do?
Does not lessen potential of the situation
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What do historians agree was a central feature in the development of the State?
Struggle for power among ruling elites
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What was a strong adult monarch required for?
To maintain control as the accession of child paved way for ambitious men to attempt to gain control
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What were periods of minority government often associated with?
Potential political unrest
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What happened from 1547-9?
Political situation deteriorated slightly
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What are the two opposing views on the deterioration of the political situation from 1547-9?
Whether caused by Somerset's lack of ability OR by numerous difficulties he had to overcome
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What were the three major problems that Somerset inherited?
Religious policy, foreign policy, economic policy
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What did Somerset inherit regarding the Church?
A Church lacking decisive leadership and clear direction
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Somerset was a moderate reformer, what were the views of most members of the Regency Council
Most were also moderates
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What kind of religious views did Edward himself possess?
He favoured radical change
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What are two examples of powerful politicians who opposed religious change?
Duke of Norfolk and Bishop Gardiner
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What did the opposition of powerful figures to religious change do??
Increased infighting between political factions
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What was the key issue of foreign policy facing Somerset?
Whether the war with Scotland and France started by Henry VIII should be continued
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What had Henry VIII hoped that war with Scotland would gain?
Marriage to Mary Queen of Scots for Edward
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What did Somerset do regarding foreign policy, though government already bankrupt?
Somerset continued war with Scotland and further crippled the country's finances
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What was an aim of both Henry VIII and Somerset regarding another ruler?
Wanted to keep on good terms of Charles V
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Why did both Henry VIII and Somerset want to stay on good terms with Charles V, ruler of Spain and the HRE?
For fear of provoking him into war
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What was the condition of the English economy?
In very weak condition
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What had caused prices to rise and made it difficult for young people to find work?
Population levels had been increasing rapidly since 1530s
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What exacerbated issues of prices and unemployment?
Fall in demand for English textiles abroad, causing growing unemployment among cloth workers
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What was the result of socio-economic problems by 1549?
Widespread discontent among the masses, large scale popular rebellions
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What did Somerset's enemies on the Council use large scale rebellions as an opportunity to do?
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Regardless of Somerset's thoughts on war againts Scotland and France, why was their continuation crucial?
Matter of national pride by most of the aristocracy and gentry; move to end war would have lost support among landed elites
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What was the council bound by regarding foreign policy?
Henry's last wishes for marriage between Edward VI and Mary, Queen of Scots
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What was Henry's plans for the wedding based on?
Ill-founded belief that military victory would force the Scots to agree
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When was the rough wooing?
After Solway Moss
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What was the Rough Wooing?
Repeated attempts on the Scottish border
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When had the agreement for Edward VI to marry Mary been finalised?
In 1543 by the Treaty of Greenwich
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What was the urgency of foreign affairs decisions?
Annual revenue of Crown - did not really have money and also important to the succession URGENT
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What increased the urgency of deciding whether to continue wars with Scotland and France?
Mary ended up marrying the Dauphin of France
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What was a positive legacy of Henry VIII regarding foreign policy, aside from the negative commitments against Scotland and France?
Growth of conscious national feeling especially after the break with Rome
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Why was modern warfare so expensive?
Best firearms from Antwerp and foreign mercenaries could only be found on the continent
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Why were mercenaries necessary?
To supplement tiny standing forces
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As a result of foreign policy commitments and the economic position of England, how much was borrowed in 1549?
£250,000 - half of it from abroad
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How much was spent by Somerset on the Scottish campaign?
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What was a flaw of Somerset's spending on Scotland?
Exacerbated situation for no real return
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Did Somerset have much choice over continuing war with Scotland?
No, not really much choice
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What did Somerset hope to do in Scotland?
Consolidate the Reformation in Scotland and finally secure England's northern border from attack
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What had happened by March 1547 in Scotland?
The pro-English Protestant party had all but collapsed
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What happened on 31st March 1547?
The last stronghold of the Scottish protestant group fell to French forces
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What was the last stronghold of Scottish Protestant party?
Castle of St Andrews
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What were Henry II's intentions in Scotland?
Keen to extend French influence over Scotland and also recover Boulogne from England immediately
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Who was Henry II?
King of France
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Henry II wanted to regain Boulogne immediately, when had Henry VIII actually agreed to return it by?
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When was the Battle of Pinkie?
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What did Somerset's inaction in the months following the Battle of Pinkie do?
Allow the Scottish to secure French support
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What was significant about where the Battle of Pinkie Clough was won?
Mere nine miles from Edinburgh
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What did Somerset lack that would have enabled him to stay in Scotland in force?
Military strength or funds
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As Somerset could not retain forces in Scotland in strength what did he do following Pinkie?
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What was the flaw of the English position in Scotland?
The English fleet could not seal off Scotland completely and several of the forts were difficult to resupply
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What happened in June 1548?
French troops landed in Leith capturing English forts and securing safe pas
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How many French troops landed in Leith in June 1548?
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Where was Leith?
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How did Somerset respond to landing of French troops in Leith?
Sent an army to relieve garrisons
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Why did Somerset's army have difficulties?
Supply routes overextended
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What happened to most of Somerset's troops in Scotland by autumn 1549?
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What happened to Mary, Queen of Scots?
She moved to France and married the French heir
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What did Somerset try to do to prevent Mary Queen of Scots marrying Dauphin?
Tried to fortify border and east coast of Scotland
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Why were Somerset's plans to fortify border and east coast of Scotland a failure?
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Did Somerset's planned fortifications and attempts prevent the French troops arrival?
No, soldiers still arrived in summer 1548
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When did Henry II declare war on England?
8th August 1549
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What was one of Henry II's first actions in his war against England?
Proceeded to attack Boulogne
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What are the possible reasons why Somerset did not pull out of Scotland?
Personal stubbornness, pressure from nobility, fears for the North and may have ignored advice of Council
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Out of the £1,386,000 spent on military affairs during Edward VI's reign, how much was spent by Somerset on Scottish campaign?
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How much did Somerset spend on troops alone?
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How did Somerset's spending on troops compare to that of Henry VIII?
It was 50% more than Henry VIII had spent over FIVE years
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How did Somerset pay for war?
Debasement, use of resources released by dissolution of chantries and colleges, parliamentary taxation, sale of Crown lands and borrowing
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What were the usual ways of raising money for war?
Selling Crown lands and borrowing
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How much money was raised in the debasement of the coinage from 1547 to 1551?
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How much did resources released from dissolution of chantries and colleges in 1547 grant by 'Michaelmas' 1548 (an important feast day)?
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How much did grants of parliamentary taxation raise for Edward's reign?
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How much of the money raised through Parliamentary taxation during Edward's reign was used for war and defences?
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What was one reason why Henry VIII had revived the conflict with Scotland and France?
In order to prevent France from using Scotland to weaken England; weak succession in 1547 kept this danger alive.
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How much had been spent on wars from 1542-1546?
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Why were nobility and gentry so anxious for war to continue?
To win personal fame, they had raised forces and led troops in the campaigns of the 1540s
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What had Henry VIII already done to pay for war?
Brought England close to bankruptcy
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What was it likely would occur if attacked Scotland?
France would be drawn into the conflict and also there was the risk of invasion in south while dealing with Scots in north
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While it easy to criticise Somerset for not paying more attention to domestic affairs what must be remembered?
Background as military commander and also concern within Tudor state about security
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What was the history of regencies?
Revealed weakness of centre of poltiical power and encouraged greed and ambition among leading nobility
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Aside from the obvious reasons of pride or achievement, why did the war against Scotland have to be completed?
To demonstrate the success of the Protectorate
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Why was the decisive victory at Battle of Pinkie not quickly followed up by further action?
Campaigning season too advanced
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Why did Somerset order fortifications to be built on east coast of Scotland?
Where a French fleet was most likely to land
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The policy of fortifications soon collapsed due to their expensive to maintain nature - who manned them?
Largely by mercenaries
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What do critics of the protector point out about his foreign policies?
Increased economic crisis in England, distracted government attention from problems at home and worsened security
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How did Somerset's foreign policy worsen English security?
Created a dynastic union between France and Scotland
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What must criticisms of Somerset's foreign policy be moderated by?
Did not carry out campaign alone and discussed war strategies with our councillors; taking decisions based on their advice
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Did the failure in Scotland contribute to the crisis?
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Whose was the failure in Scotland?
Was a failure of government rather than a failure of the Protector alone
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After the declaration of war by Henry II in August 1549, what happened to Somerset's resources?
Split as to defend Calais and Boulogne had to remove troops from Scottish border
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What was the state of foreign affairs at the end of Somerset's protectorship?
Ended with a war in France and a hostile Scottish/French coalition in the north
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What was Henry's legacy for Somerset?
Weak - long term structural changes taking place in society and economy were causing problems
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Due to changes introduced by Cromwell in the 1530s, what had Tudor government come to rest on?
Principle tht the power of monarch was based in Parliament
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Who had to approve proposals for taxation and confirm any new laws generally?
Both Houses of Parliament
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What are examples of actions under the royal prerogative?
Diplomacy and making of war and peace.
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Religion used to be considered part of the royal prerogative. Why was that no longer so?
Henry VIII had used Parliament to carry through the English Reformation
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What does most evidence support regarding administration in the first two years of Edward's reign compared to last years of Henry's?
That it was not markedly different
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In the first two years of Edward's reign, who was the Privy Council made up of?
Men who had risen to power under Henry
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What was a strong similarity between the Privy Council under Henry and under Edward?
Using the same methods and machinery of government to cope with similar problems
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What were the real differences between government under Somerset and in the last years of Henry?
Lack of effective leadership and existing problems seemed to have become worse under Somerset
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What has been suggested about the level at which Somerset can be blamed for problems?
Neither more nor less to blame than other aristocratic colleagues
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Why is a possible reason that Somerset could be seen as to blame for problems to only the same extent of his aristocratic colleagues?
Not certain but may be because he was unwilling or unable to change their attitudes
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What were problems of government during Somerset's protectorship?
Economic and financial as well as dealing with the religious reform
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Is there any evidence that Somerset tried to corrupt government?
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Did Somerset introduce any reforms in government?
No, he did not.
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What are two possible reasons why Somerset failed to show the leadership necessary to compensate for absence of adult monarch?
May be due to preoccupation with war OR due to stubbornness and inability to adjust to new conditions
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How can Somerset be seen as an avid Protestant?
Kept a Protestant household and became a correspondent of Calvin.
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What happened to the tone of Court under Somerset?
It changed as Protestant preachers began to make their presence felt
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Was progress towards Protestantism speedy under Somerset?
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Why does Haigh say that Somerset's religious change was spasmodic and uncertain?
As he feared the dangers brought by reform
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What is a likely reason for Somerset's cauion?
Wanted to avoid a repetition of Pilgrimage of Grace (associated with Henry VIII's reforms) while engaged in hostilities in Scotlandw
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What was one significant motivation for the Western Rebellion?
Desire to halt the Reformation
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What is it possible to see on occasions regarding Somerset's religious policy?
Possibly to see movement from below pushing reforms further than he intended
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When was the Act of Six Articles passed?
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What was the intention of the Act of Six Articles?
Promote Catholic religious ideas and prevent further spread of Protestantism in England and Wales.
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Since the passage of the Act of Six Articles what was pressure building among Protestant clergy and laity for?
Introduction of reform along lines of Lutheranism and Calvinism on continent
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What was Lutheranism?
Influence of religious ideas and teachings of Martin Luther of Germany who criticised the Pope and protested corruption of Catholic Church
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When was Luther thrown out of the Church and what was his response?
Was kicked out in the 1520s and he set up his own Protestant church
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What did the Privy Council mainly consist of?
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Why must some gestures be made towards true reform?
Anxious to keep the support of influential reformers such as Bishops Ridley and Latimer
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Where was there a growing radical minority?
In London and the Southeast
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Who, alongside the moderates and radicals did Somerset have to placate?
Conservatives such as Gardiner
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Of the radical minority in the London and Southeast what was their demographic make up?
A minority tended to belong to gentry classes - these could not be alienated
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What did many of those returning from exile during the reign of Henry VIII hope for?
Not just toleration but ecclesiastical reform
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As France had allied with the Scots, who else needed to be considered when making religious policy?
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What had to be ensured regarding relations with Charles V?
That they were at least cordial
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What had to be ensured regarding Mary Tudor as she was Charles V's aunt?
That she was not persecuted for religious beliefs and practices
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What percentage (roughly - accurate figures lacking) of London were Protestant in 1547?
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What was the religious outlook of many people?
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What was a growing belief on the continent?
That people should accept the religious outlook of the ruler
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Why was the belief on continent to accept religious views of ruler compromised in England?
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The religious changes were in part cause of unrest. In which rebellion did complaints about the religious direction of the country feature prominently in?
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What was the urgency of dealing with religious issues?
While of high importance and needed to be dealt with quickly could argue that revenue and economy should take precedence
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How can Somerset's approach to religious policy be described?
As moderate and cautious
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What was encouraged by the government?
Relaxation of press censorship
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A full enquiry into the state of the Church of England was to be carried out by commissioners on what scale?
In every parish
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What legislation was passed under Somerset regarding religion?
Act of Uniformity, Treason Act and Chantries Act
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What were Someset's personal views towards the extreme Protestant ideas of John Calvin?
Some personal sympathies
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As Lord Protector, despite his personal views regarding Calvin what did Somerset recognise?
The need for sensitivity to religious changes as Lord Protector; need for moderate and cautious approach
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What made the adoption of a moderate and cautious approach more difficult?
Pressures building up
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What happened as soon as news of Edward's death reached the continent?
Exiled Protestants who had fled began returning from Netherlands and Germany
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When had exiled Protestants fled England?
In the 1530s and 1540s
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Where did the exiled Protestants settle when they returned under Edward?
Along the coast in towns and villages
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What was the importance of a regional aspect in religion?
Southeast more Protestant andalso there were villages and towns along coast where exiled Protestants returned to England
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What did the demands of the returned exiles cause in their local community?
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What was the view of English bishops towards religious change?
Split fairly evenly on whether to support further changes
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What is an example of a famous depiction of the Edwardian Reformation?
Allegorical painting of the triumph of Protestant 'truth' over Catholic 'error' asHenry points to successor.
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In the allegorical painting of Henry VIII on his deathbed, what is the significance of the inscription on the Bible "The Word of the Lord Endureth Forever" that hits the Pope and his robe saying "Flesh is Grass"?
Denies his claim to be head of a timeless church
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What was the result of relaxation of press censorship?
Massive increase in number of pamphlets and writings against Catholicism and the free circulation of the writings of Martin Luther and Calvin
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What was the initial religious policy under Somerset?
Initially logical policy stalling for time - enquiry into Church and measures to undo Six Articles Act and rules providing for Bible in English.
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What was done when Parliament met in November 1547?
Was used to enact religious change
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What was the role of the legislation produced at the Parliament which met in November 1547?
Legislation did little more than underline what was already happening
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When was the Treason Act made law?
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What was the primary purpose of the Treason Act?
Repealed Six Articles Act and the treason and censorship laws that had stifled religious debate during the closing years of Henry VIII's reign
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Was the Treason Act as strict as Henry's laws?
No as allowed people to discuss religion openly and may be seen to represent Parliamentary support and pressure for religious reform.
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What did the Treason Act abolish?
Kinds of treason except those in the original Treason Act of 1351, this act or treason related to counterfeiting money or forging King's seals
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What was it common for a new regime to begin with?
Some signal that ills of previous regime had ended and a new and bright future beckoned
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What did the 1547 Treason Act do to the 1539 Proclamation Act?
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Why had the 1539 Proclamation Act been very unpopular?
Suggested the King could rule without Parliament
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Did the repeal of the 1539 Proclamation Act impact strongly on Somerset?
No, he still largely ruled through proclamation.
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What had Henry VIII's Proclamation Act required?
A council as nominated in the Act to enforce proclamations
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What could the significance of the repeal of the 1539 Proclamation Act be?
Either liberal reaction to despotism of Henry VIII AND/OR designed to free Somerset from the necessity of getting the consent of 12 councillors for proclamations.
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What kinds of Treason were punished under the 1547 Treason Act?
Saying king not Supreme Head of Church for third time, writing king not Supreme Head of Church for first time, attempting to deny King or successors the title, saying someone else the king, or interrupting the succession of Succession Act 1543
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What was significant about the fact the Treason Act (1547) made it an offence to interrupt the succession as under the 1543 Succession Act?
Edward on his death changed the succession
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Was the 1534 Treason Act or the 1547 Treason Act more exacting?
1534 (may have something to do with circumstances of time?)
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Why was the 1547 Treason Act an important move towards religious reform?
Lifting of heresy laws enabled Protestants to practice more freely and removal of censorship laws led to rapid increase circulatio of Lutheran and Calvinist propaganda and books
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What was an issue with the 1547 Treason Act?
It encouraged iconoclasm
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What was iconoclasm?
The practice of destroying religious images associated with the Catholic Church; those believed by Protestants to encourage superstition and false worship?
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What was a strongly negative result of the Treason Act?
Iconoclasm led to more cases of public disorder which encouraged difficult situations that the Protector struggled to control
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After the Treason Act of 1547 were there more or less clergy preaching openly Protestant ideas in their parishes?
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What legislation did the Treason Act sweep away, meaning that there were no religious martyrs during Somerset's time in power?
1414 Act for the Burning of Heretics and the 1539 Act of Six Articles
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When was the Chantries Act passed?
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What did the chantries act do?
Abolished particular type of Catholic religious house
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What was a main reason that the Chantries Act was passed?
More to raise money for the Scottish war than for religious reasons
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When did the government fell secure enough to take firm action on confusion of religious policy with passing of 1549 Act of Uniformity?
After war with Scotland was over
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What were chantries?
Houses where prayers were said for the dead
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Although motivated by financial necessities what can be said about the Chantries Act?
Was logical continuation from the dissolution of the monasteries
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What was the theological significance of the Chantries Act?
Demonstrated that the new government rejected the Catholic doctrine of purgatory
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How many chantries and chapels were dissolved?
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How many colleges were dissolved?
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How many hospitals were dissolved?
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How did chantries illustrate part of the Catholic faith?
Clear expression of doctrine of Purgatory with encouragement of good works such as founding of chantry chapels
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Protestants did not believe in the importance of good works, what was their view instead?
Justification through faith alone
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What was the cash yield from the dissolution of the chantries?
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How does the yield from the dissolution of the chantries compare to that from the dissolution of the monasteries?
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How many priests were made redundant by the dissolution of the chantries and how many were found benefices?
2500 made redundant and 2000 found beneficies
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While the total number of schools seems to have reduced slightly, what can be said?
Most were refounded
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What was a more decidedly Protestant change than even the chantries act?
February 1548 - Order to ban images of saints across whole realm
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How did the banning of images of saints begin?
Through Archbishop Cranmer's preaching against images of saints in churches
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What had a Royal Injunction of 1547 forbidden regarding images?
Forbidden veneration of images
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What had visitation commissioners done after the royal injunction of 1547 forbidding veneration of images of saints?
Visitation commissioners took instructions more extremely and began removing images
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What happened in September 1547 in St Paul's, London?
images were torn down
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What did the Council order to be done after images were torn down from St Paul's in September 1547?
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What does the incident regarding images of saints suggest?
Somerset under pressure from below - Council had originally ordered restoration of St Paul's images though communities split.
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Although there had been opposition to initial orders regarding images what was done?
Seems most churches removed offending images without complaint
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What does the fact that many churches retained the offending images of saints and hid them show?
That they expected there could be a change in policy at a later date
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What is a homily?
A sermon, usually as a reflection on scripture or doctrine
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When was the Book of Homilies issued?
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What was a further step towards Protestantism after the publication of the Book of Homilies?
When Stephen Gardiner and Edward Bonner were imprisoned for complaints about the book
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What was Gardiner's religious role?
Bishop of Winchester
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What was Edward Bonner's religious role?
Bishop of London
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The Book of Homilies included preaching on sola fide, what was this?
Justification by faith alone, a teaching which contradicted the orthodox Catholic teaching that good works necessary for salvation.
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What was the purpose of the Book of Homilies which, it was ordered, was to be put in every church?
Provide model sermons for members of the clergy who were unable to preach for themselves
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Did all churches use the Book of Homilies?
According to Haigh, they did not
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What does the imprisonment of conservative bishops for complaints about the Book of Homilies show?
Clear evidence that reformation intended and that the clergy were expected to conform
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When was the Act of Uniformity passed?
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What did Somerset approve before the Act of Uniformity?
Inclusion of English prayers in communion; at this time he also asked people to be content while Cranmer prepared new prayer book
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When was the Act of Uniformity passed by Parliament?
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What did the Act of Uniformity enforce?
the Book of Common Prayer (the First Prayer Book)
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Did the bill for the Act of Uniformity face trouble in the House of Commons?
Only small amount of resistance
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What was the response in the House of Lords for the bill of the Act of Uniformity?
In more Catholic and conservative House faced opposition from 8 bishops and 3 lay peers
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What did the First Prayer Book detail?
The form of worship to be followed
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What was the view of the First Prayer Book on transubstantiation?
Retained it but emphasised that no sacrifice involved. Hope of compliance from Catholics.
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What did Gardiner say from prison about the changes, such as the First Prayer Book and those of the Act of Uniformity?
Gave assent, including to use of English in settlement instead of Latin
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Why did Somerset deliberately seek an unclear settlement?
In order to avoid upsetting Charles V
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What did Somerset reassure Charles V regarding the Act of Uniformity?
That the Prayer Book was a conservative reform. In some ways it actually was, for example the retainment of traditional vestments
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What did the Act of Uniformity bring an end to?
Wide variety of services in parishes, intended to impose single uniform standard of worship to end religious confusion since 1534
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What language did the Act of Uniformity say that services must be in?
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What did the Act of Uniformity say that congregations should be offered during communion?
both the bread and wine - Catholics reserved wine for preiesthood
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In which ways did the Act of Uniformity NOT create a fully Protestant church?
Services conducted among familiar lines aside from language change and by priests dressed and behaving as they always had
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In spite of Somerset's cautious approach and approval of conservatives, who voiced the prayer book as a grievance?
Western Rebels - although should not exaggerate extent of resistance by Catholics apart from this as no evidence of organised resistance
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Did most parishes comply to the Book of Common Prayer?
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What does Colin Pendrill claim that many priests did when delivering services in English?
Mumbled so words might as well have been in Latin and used alternate gestures as could not elevate the Host
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What is the significance of elevating the Host during Catholic mass?
Raising consecrated bread and wine during Eucharist to indicate transubstantiation had occurred
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Where did some of the most strongly worded complaints about the Prayer Book come from?
Protestants who thought that the Prayer Book did not go far enouh
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What led John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, to complain about the Book of Common Prayer and demand completely Protestant prayer book?
Said it was ful of popish errors
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What was overturned by the same Parliament that passed the Act of Uniformity?
Henry VIII's orders forbidding clerical marriage
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Which can be seen as more significant in showing the pathway to fully-fledged Protestantism: the Act of Uniformity or the reversal of Henry's orders forbidding clerical marriage?
Reversal of orders forbidding clerical marriage
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What was significant about the Prayer Book issued by Archbishop Cranmer alongside the Act of Uniformity?
It was vague - did not entirely deny transubstantiation but gave impression was simply a commemoration - reassuring Protestants
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What is the significance of the words "common prayer" as the name of the Prayer Book?
Congregation communing with God and not the priest on their behalf. Idea of personal relationship with God was radical
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Was there a statement on Purgatory in the Act of Uniformity?
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Although religious change contributed to the rebellions that led to Somerset's fall, did he do all he could?
Yes, dismantled obstacles to religious change that had been created by conservative faction in late 1530s while avoiding open religious schism
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What makes Somerset's religious policies more impressive?
England's international situation and political weaknes of a regency government
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What was done in January 1548 regarding religion?
Several traditional practices forbidden, such as Candlemas and also fasting during Lent
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What was ordered by the Council in February 1548 regarding religion?
Destruction of images and stained glass windows depicting saints, also removal of wall paintings
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When was the Council obliged to restore official censorship?
By August 1549
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When was an act allowing priests to marry eventually passed?
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What percentage of priests married, giving them a vested interest in a continued Reformation?
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By 1546 how much had Henry borrowed from continental bankers, mainly in Antwerp - aside from the money already spent on war?
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What had Henry done to pay for warspending?
Sold off most of monastic lands seized from 1538-1540 as wel as Crown lands
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By 1547 what had the annual revenue from Crown lands fallen to, a figure that was insufficent to run county and pay off government borrowing?
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What was the state of the government's finances in 1547?
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What has Guy described Somerset's economic policy as?
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What shows the extent of the issue of debasement?
Exchange rate of the pound sterling against the pound Flemish was cut in half from 1540 to 1551
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Why might the government regret possible economic decisions?
Changes, particularly to enclosure rights would attack gentry needed for support and trying to improve finances more through taxes would be unpopular and lose support
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What was the most pressing problem in 1547?
Need to reform taxation and customs systems and bring financial administration up to date as government virtually bankrupt
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Why were the required changes not made to financial administration under Somerset?
Somerset and Council focused on war with concerns of raised taxe being unpopular with elites and other tax payers
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What issues is there evidence caused increasing popular discontent?
Enclosure, price rises and breakdown of traditional village communities
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How much did Henry VIII raise from subsidies for war in 1540s?
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How much did Henry VIII raise from forced loans for war in 1540s?
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Of the £2,100,000 spent on war by Henry VIII, taking away the money raised through forced loans and subsidies what was the deficit that was passed on to his son?
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Instead of raising taxes what did Somerset do?
Old policies of seizing more Church property and debasing coinage
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What was the impact of continued debasement on the poor?
Prices rose - poor worse off
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What was the reality of Somerset's treatment of the poor?
Might have felt some assistance needed to defuse protest but had to be careful to avoid jeopardising revenues for Scottish war
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What did Somerset's difficult position regarding the poor push him into?
Dangerous policy as by appearing sympathetic raised hope of reform without being able to fulfill it
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Why did Somerset not take the action required to control inflation?
Would have reduced the taxation he needed to fight Scottish wars
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What was a commission established to investigate, with government inspectors touring the country?
Legality of recent enclosures
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In which parts of the country were enclosure commissioners welcomed by, and why?
Families in the Midslands and south who had lost lands and customary rights when landowners converted fields from open strips for crop production into fenced off pastures for sheep grazing
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What did many expect the enclosure commissioners to achieve?
A reversal of enclosures with bitter disappointment when they did not
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Who did not welcome the arrival of enclosure commissioners?
Gentry landowners who had made wealth from sheep farming
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Aside from enclosure commissioners, what infuriated gentry landowners?
New laws passed in 1548-9 raised the tax on sheep and cloth
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What was the impact of the well meaning investigation into enclosures?
Did not help, no real change to help the poor but caused fury among gentry and more importantly in nobility. Rebellion brewing - blamed Somerset.
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There was an issue with the government's perception of economic problems. What did they blame all economic problems on?
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What was the main effect of proclamations against enclosures and commissioners sent out to investigate such abuses?
Increased unrest as masses hoped for action while fear of landed elites.
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What actions regarding revenue, aside from enclosures, made the situation worse?
Measures limiting size of leaseholds and placing a tax on wools increased fears of elites
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When many elites evaded Somerset's legislation on the economy what was the consequence?
Impact fell most heavily on the poor sections of society that were supposed to be protected
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Under Henry VIII debasement had begun; what did Somerset do?
Continued it, leading to spiralling inflation
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Why did debasement cause prices to rise?
As those selling goods demanded more coins for the same amount of goods to compensate for lower value. Wages did not rise - poor considerably worse off and wealth of rich diminished
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How was debasement carried out under Somerset?
Royal mints ordered to reissue coinage with greater percentage of copper in silver coins.
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By 1551, after Somerset's fall, what percentage of the make up of silver coins was copper?
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What did debasement actually do?
Fuelled discontent across all classes
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What could have brought about a real difference in economical situation?
End to the war!
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What was the main cause of inflation?
Population increase causing increased demand for goods.
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What else did population change do?
Added cost of administration and threatened living standards when wages not increasing. More people available for employment, raised number of vagrants
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What exacerbated the situation brought about by increasing population?
Poor harvest , with discontent also rising due to high taxes
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Until what year did series of good harvests keep the price of grain stable until?
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What happened in 1549 as a result of the poor harvest?
Situation worse and level of popular discontent
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Debasement and high levels of taxation made the economic situation worse but could the government do much to deal with root cause of problems?
No, root cause of problems beyond control of government.
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What did Somerset do to help the poor?
Established court of requests at Somerset House to hear cases of the poor and he criticised the wealthy
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What makes the image of Somerset as a protector of the poor unconvincing?
Riches he gathered while Lord Protector
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When was the Vagrancy Act passed?
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What was the 1547 Vagrancy Act a move towards?
The proper poor relief provision that would emerge under Elizabeth I
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Who was the Vagrancy Act intended to help, ordering local officials to provide housing and collections for?
The 'deserving poor' who were "idle, impotent and aged" who were not vagabonds
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What was a vagabond?
A wanderer with no fixed home, usually driven from place to place looking for work.
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Why did the negative provisions of the Vagrancy Act lead to its description as the Slavery Act?
The punishments for able-bodied people who were unemployed for more than three days!
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What was the punishment for the first time unemployed for three days?
Branded with a V and sold into slavery for two years
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What was the punishment for a further incidence of able-bodied person being unemployed for three days?
Permanent slavery. Children could be removed from care and forced into appreticeships
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What happened regarding the Vagrancy Act as it was so unpopular with JPs and many county and urban authorities refused to enforce it?
It was never put into effect
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How was the Vagrancy Act impacted on historian's views of Somerset?
Led to a revision of opinion that he was the champion of the poor
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When is it clear that level of discontent had risen by and why?
Middle of 1548 as Privy Council was forced to take measures to appease public agitation
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What is the most likely explanation for the piecemeal actions made for the poor?
Rising prices and local food shortages forced the government to take action
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What is it reasonable to suggest was the government's concern in social policy?
Preventing riot and rebellion
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What supports the view of government action as focused on preventing unrest rather than aiming to help poor or solve economic problems?
Three proclamations issued in 1548 aimed specifically at maintaining law and order
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What was the content of the three proclamations issued in 1548 regarding law and order?
Ban on violent sports, offence to spread rumours as likely to create unrest and unlawful assemblies forbidden
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What was the punishment for breaking rules of proclamations regarding law and order issued in 1548?
To be sent for varying periods to the galleys (royal warships propelled by oars)
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What do the 1548 proclamations focused on law and order appear to suggest?
Economic position getting out of hand and government feared consequences
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What contributed to Somerset's fall?
Treason Act (due to iconoclasm violence), debasement, Chantries Act, actions during rebellions, foreign policy
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How can the Treason Act be linked to Somerset's fall?
Iconoclasm rise - link to the Western Rebellion when William Body to supervise destruction of images was murdered in 1548
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What was a reason for rebellions, especially Kett's?
Issue of debasement
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How was the Chantries Act linked to rebellions?
Commissioners sent out to seize land and property; this fear is somewhat related to Body before Western Rebellion
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What had Somerset's foreign policy done?
Driven the Scottish into the arms of the French
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What had Somerset's concern for the economic hardship of the regions actually achieved?
Flurry of activity but no real results
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What had his (appropriate for the circumstances) religious policies achieved?
Failed to satisfy Protestants and had alarmed Catholics
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What prevented Somerset from surviving the rebellions and his disastrous policies?
Had few supporters left in government
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What was a flaw with Somerset's actions to suppress popular uprisings in West Country and East Anglia?
Seemed unwilling or unable to take decisive action
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What is a less likely interpretation of Somerset's hesitation to act against the rebellions?
Traditionally interpreted as sympathy for the rebels
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What is a more likely interpretation of Somerset's delays?
Caused by the reluctance of local elites to intervene without government support
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What made it difficult to raise a new mercenary army?
Lack of money
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What was Somerset's commander-in-chief reluctant to do?
Withdraw troops from his garrisons in Scotland and France
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When was it possible for the rebels to be defeated?
Only when Privy Council realised severity of situation and provided additional troops
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Who defeated the rebels in the West Country?
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Who defeated the rebels in East Anglia?
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick
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What was one reason why Somerset's colleagues turned against him?
Failed to prevent anarchy and rebellion
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What did Warwick do, fresh from his victory in Norfolk?
Engineered Somerset's arrest in October 1549
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Was there any opposition to Somerset's arrest?
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What happened to Somerset after his arrest in October 1549?
He was released in early 1550 and rejoined Privy Council but within year was accused of plotting against the government and was executed in January 1552
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When did Somerset recall troops in 1549?
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What did the rebels intend to do?
Redress grievances - did not intend to threaten established order
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What did moderate Catholics blame Somerset for?
Religious change that sparked the Western Rebellion
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Which of Somerset's policies is seen as the root cause of Kett's rebellion?
Social policy, especially with regards to enclosure
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Why did Somerset release troops too late?
Desire not to to disturb Scottish campaign
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What did Paget accuse Somerset of?
Showing "softness" and failing to take advice of Council
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What was Paget's role
Comptroller of King's household and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
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How did Sir William Paget discreetly threaten Somerset?
"Remember what you promised immediately after, devising with me concerning the place which you now occupy.. and that was to follow mine advice in all proceedings more than any other man's."
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What did Somerset attempt to do in September 1549?
Attempted to create new Council
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Who opposed Somerset's attempts to create new Council in September 1549?
Earls of Arundel, Southampton and Warwick
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What did Somerset do after failed attempts to set up new Council?
Took King under his care at Windsor Castle but Edward complaine of cold and accused uncle of keeping him prisoner
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How had Thomas Seymour, before his execution, weakened Edward's relationship with Somerset?
Supplied Edward with money - Edward long complained of being short of pocket money and being unable to properly reward courtiers
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What did Edward do that damned Somerset?
Abandoned him and said Somerset had threatened riots on the streets should the King deprive him of his position. Though Somerset denied this could not contradict king.
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What happened under the Earl of Warwick?
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When was Thomas Seymour executed?
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When was Warwick made Duke of Northumberland and took title of Lord President of the Council?
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When was Somerset executed on trumped up charges orchestrated by Northumberland?
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Other cards in this set
What must any judgements on Somerset's character and capabilities be based upon to be valid?
Achievements or lack of
What do some historians see Somerset as?
What was the old view of Somerset?
What is the more recent view of Somerset?