The PRC under Mao

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"China was becoming a society of informers."
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"Propaganda was a constant accompaniment to everyday life."
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Why was increased agricultural output important to Mao's regime?
To save spending of valuable foreign currency on food imports
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Why did Mao order forced collectivisation?
To reach cooperatives at a more advanced stage.
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Why did peasants resist forced collectivisation?
Because the CCP had previously told them that they had a right to own property (Agrarian laws)
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How many intellectuals were purged in the "Hundred Flowers Campaign"?
1-2 million
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What was the result of the 100 Flowers Campaign?
Intellectuals never dared to criticise Mao again
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"Mao had purged the intelligentsia, who would never again dare to criticise the CCP under Mao."
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Describe the reforms that the GLF initiated
People's Communes were created, made of collectivised farms.
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How many people lived in People's Communes?
Between 50,000 and 100,000 peasants.
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What were mutual aid teams?
A system in which peasants would own their own land, but would help each other with manpower, animals, and equipment
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FYP
Five Year Plan
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The State Council's relationship with the Chairman & Vice president
The latter 2 supervised the government
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What was the State Council?
The government
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NPC
National People's Congress
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Politburo
Powerhouse of the party, makes key governmental decisions. 20-30 members
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Standing Committee
Smaller group, element of Politburo. Members make the key, overriding decisions.
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Chen Yun
CCP economist, elite
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Zhou Enlai
CCP diplomat, elite
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Shu De
CCP diplomat, elite
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Liu Shaoqi
CCP member, elite
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What was notably undemocratic about the Chinese constitution?
Party members control the functions of the government at every level.
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What was party representation from local to national level designed to create?
A structure for the dissemination of command
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What did "participation in politics" imply?
Supporting, and following all of the government's policies
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What were the 4 Pests?
Sparrows, rats, flies, and mosquitoes.
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How did the government try to encourage people to be better communists?
By using models; eg. exaggerating ordinary soldier Lei Feng into a humble war hero
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How many People's Communes were created?
70,000
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Who was Trofim Lysenko?
An incredibly bad biologist. Believed that acquired traits could be passed down onto offspring.
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What was the result of campaigns for "Pest Control"?
Hunger, and starvation
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"No food was left for the peasants."
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What is an example of Mao trying to create an industrial take off using the Chinese population?
He tried to encourage peasants to build "backyard furnaces"
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What was the result of backyard furnaces?
All useful metal objects were melted down, and resulted in the mass production of **** metal
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"The GLF was a disaster because of party ignorance of basic economics"
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Deng Xiaping
General secretary of the CCP
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Lin Biao
Minister of Defence since 1959
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How did Liu and Deng change government policies?
Markets were allowed to operate again, providing private farmers with an incentive to produce surplus grain
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PLA
People's Liberation Army
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Red Book
A book that contained quotes from Mao. Compulsory reading for the PLA
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How was the PLA politicised into a force that was committed to supporting Mao?
They were schooled in Mao's texts
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"The PLA would become a tool for Mao"
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Jiang Qing
Mao's wife
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Chen Boda
A major radical that was close to Mao
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What did Mao use the Cultural Revolution for?
To regain political power from the pragmatic Party leaders (Liu and Deng)
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"Mao feared the development of "soviet revisionism" in China."
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"Liu and Deng accepted the need of Soviet expertise."
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Mao's concept of "Permanent Revolution"
The Revolution is not a historical event, but an ongoing process, and the efforts to change society must never be stopped.
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What happened after the targets of the Red Guards were purged?
They would turn on each other to prove their "proletarian integrity"
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What was the role of the PLA during the Cultural Revolution?
They were usually passive. Mao knew he could use the PLA against the RG if necessary.
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He Long
Old war hero (Civil) and Marshall of the PLA
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How did Mao solve the dilemma of supporting the PLA, or RG?
He sent the RG into the countryside to live amongst peasants
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How many RGs would be moved into the countryside from 1967-72?
Approx 12 mill
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What were Mao and Stalin afraid of?
Western attack upon their countries
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What did Deng and Liu do in the Cultural Revolution?
They tried to stop students from attacking teachers etc, but were unsuccessful
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What did Zhou do in the Cultural Revolution?
He tried to keep peace between party factions
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What did Deng say to Jiang?
That "culture was about entertainment as well as indoctrination"
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If you didn't participate in the Cultural Revolution, you...
weren't showing a proper hatred to the enemy/love for the people
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Who were attacked as part of the Cultural Revolution?
Teachers, parents, landlords, rich peasants, reactionaries, bad elements, rightists
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How many people died as a result of the GLF and Cult Rev?
More than 30 million people
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What were the methods used to executive the Cultural Revolution?
Idealism, terror, coercion, self-criticism, re-education
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"Propaganda was a constant accompaniment to everyday life."

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Why was increased agricultural output important to Mao's regime?

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Why did Mao order forced collectivisation?

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Why did peasants resist forced collectivisation?

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