# The Physics of Waves Part 2

26 Questions covering topics 4.6 to 4.11 of HL physics. Requires knowledge of standing waves and polarization as well as the Doppler effect and resolution including the equations which dictate the observations of these effects.

Nodes are defined as...?
Positions on the wave which experience no displacement
1 of 18
Antiodes are defined as...?
Positions on the wave which experience the maximum displacement
2 of 18
The three differences between standing waves and progressive waves is that standing waves...?
Wave profile DOES NOT move, all the points between the nodes ARE in phase and all the points on the wave experience THE SAME amplitude
3 of 18
At least how many antinodes are present in a standing wave established in an open pipe?
2
4 of 18
For a closed pipe, only standing waves in increments of...?
Half wavelengths can be formed
5 of 18
The 'Doppler effect' is...?
The observed change in frequency of a wave due to movement relative to the source
6 of 18
The equation relating the observed frequency (f1) to the emitted frequency (fo) when the observer is moving is...? (where v is the velocity of the observer and c is the wave velocity)
f1 = ((c +/- v)fo) / c
7 of 18
The equation relating the observed frequency (f1) to the emitted frequency (fo) is...? (where v is the velocity of the observer and c is the wave velocity)
f1 = (cfo) / (c +/- v)
8 of 18
Red shift is...?
The observed shift of the wavelengths of light from receding objects to longer wavelengths of light
9 of 18
Huygens wave construction / principle states that...
Each point on a wave at any one time can be regarded as the beginning of a new wave (wavelet) in order to predict the propagation of the wave.
10 of 18
In diffraction, the central maximum is...?
A peak of relatively high intensity directly in front of the slit
11 of 18
In diffraction, the first minimum is...?
A peak of relatively low intensity immediately to the side of the peak of highest intensity
12 of 18
What is the main assumption made when using the equation (θ = λ / b) to calculate the angle of diffraction of the first minimum?
The the angles being measured are extremely small, meaning that: sinθ = θ
13 of 18
The Rayleigh Criterion states that...?
Two points will be just resolved if the central maximum of one source coincides with the first minimum of the other source.
14 of 18
For a circular aperture, the width of the central maximum is how many times wider...? (θ = λ / b)
1.22
15 of 18
Electron microscopes can resolve points which are closer together than an optical microscope can because...?
An electron has a smaller wavelength than visible light
16 of 18
Malus's law gives the intensity of light received by an analyzer (a second Polaroid) given that the incident light is plane polarized. The equation states...?
I = Io cos(θ)^2
17 of 18
An LCD display works by...
Using liquid crystals which only rotate polarized incident light by 90° when there is no voltage applied, allowing light and dark segments to be created electronically.
18 of 18

## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Antiodes are defined as...?

#### Back

Positions on the wave which experience the maximum displacement

### Card 3

#### Front

The three differences between standing waves and progressive waves is that standing waves...?

#### Back ### Card 4

#### Front

At least how many antinodes are present in a standing wave established in an open pipe?

#### Back ### Card 5

#### Front

For a closed pipe, only standing waves in increments of...?

#### Back 