The Northern Earls rebellion

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What were Elizabeths personal beliefs?
protestant so it was widely expected she would change the country's religion from catholism
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Who did she appoint as her personal secretary?
William cecil
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What were the causes of the rebellion?
1. Mary queen of scots 2. Religious 3.political (loss of land &wealth) 4. Bastard Feudalism
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Who was the greatest danger to elizabeth and why?
Mary Queen of scots- strongest claim to the thorne after elizabeth and as a catholic was a potenil leader of english catholism againsit elizabeth
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When did the problem become serious?
she arrived in England in 1568 having been forced to flee to scotland- she hoped for support from her cousin
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What happened in the same year?
english ships seized Spainish bullion ships on return from europe and the new world which ended the friendship between england and spain
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Why was Mary their chief fear?
Elizabeth had still not married and produced an heir
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Why was their fear justified?
Mary became involed in various plots againsit elizabeth to restore catholism with herself on the throne
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What is a simple explanation of this cause?
it was a response to the changing religious situation and the arrival of a focus for catholic oppisition
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What was the official religious view of the Rebellion?
was to resist the religious changes to the church which is reflected in the catholic enthusiasm of the earls followers
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Who were the two main agitators and what had they just done?
Thomas Maskenfield and Dr Morton had just returned from trips abroad fired with enthuisasm
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Why was the rebellion so catholic? (2 main reasons)
strong catholic infulence over people involved and the proclamation had strong catholic content
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During the rebellion several actions displayed the rebels religious views, what was one of these?
the new Bishop of Durham (pilkington, protestant) had introduced unpopular radical changes,rebels sized cathedral on 14 nov and revolt lasted several weeks- inculded celebration of mass
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How was it similar to the pilgrimage of grace?
used the 5 wounds of Christ on their banner
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What were there rumors about?
foregein powers threatened to invade the country in order to reslove the religous question
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What did this mean the cause of rebellion was?
to reform regilon before foregein princes arrived to do so
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What had the 2 main earls involed in the rebllion expericed?
a loss of political power and wealth under elizabeth
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Whta was the reason for this?
William Cecil had increased control over Northern England and interfred with the council of the north
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How did the Earl of Northumberland suffered from the reassertion of her fathers polices?
he held wardenships of the East and Middle Marches and owned 40 townships, 2 key castles and had 2,000 tenants
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How did this change?
no longer allowed the wardenship of the middle march and played no part in the custody of Mary
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What had he done in 1568?
put a claim in for compensation to the crown over the rights of a copper mine discovered on his and but if was ignored
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What had Elizabeth deliberately done?
bulit up the gentry cilentlel of Northumberlands rival, sir john foster - also put cousin in charge of Berwick and the east march
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Why was the Earl of Westmoreland suffering from Poverty?
he had lost the title of Lieutenant General of the North which he had held under Mary
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What did this of noble power mean for the crown?
significant political resentment at the extension of Tudor authority in the North
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What was a further political cause of the rebellion?
the distrust and dislike of old nobilty againsit new nobles who influenced the queen
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What was happening to the ancient nobility?
putting them down and seen to be misusing the Queens majesty inculding setting up a new found regilon
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Who had the rebels focused their attention on?
William Cecil (evil advisor)
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What is Bastard Feudalism?
Instead of land being given as rewards 'annual payments' were given to nobles which allowed them to bulid up their retainers giving them power and the ability to raise there own armies
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Why is Bastard feudalsim a cause of the rebellion?
led to over mighty nobels who had a great deal of power within their own armies
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Why did the armies rebel?
they lost power in the localities and many parcipated as they were afriad of what the rebels would do
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What explains why the gentry involed were often retainers of the two Northrn ealrs?
BF gave ealrs power to make their subjects rebel but they were not committed to the cause which made them easier to defeat
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Where were the largest groups of supporter from?
Brancepeth, Raby and Topcliffe
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However BF wasnt significat enough to rasie large forces so what did the nobles resort to?
offering minimal wages and virtually forcing men to join
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When did the crisis come about?
when both Earls supported a plan to marry Mary Queen of Scots to the Duke of Norfolk which they believed would force Elizabeth to name Mary as Heir- at same time would overthrow cecil
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What would this plan do?
Settle the sucession problem ensure peace with France and spain and mean England was not isolated in Europe
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How did Elizabeth react to the scheme?
once she found out she put an end to it and called the Earls to court to be questioned by elizabeth but the failed to instead returning to the North
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What ddid Elizabeth think she could do?
force them into showing their true colors but instead pushed them into rebellion
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What had it been claimed that the Earls actual plan was?
to overthrow elizabeth and replace her with Mary
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How did Percies feel about the plan?
sympathised with the plan he wanted Mary to Marry a catholic rather than the Duke of Norfolk (Northumberland)
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Why did the plan have some appeal to protestants?
it was seen as a way of reducing the stregth to Marys commiment to catholism
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What protestants did it appeal to?
Leicester, Pembroke and Throckmorton
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What did the Duke of Norfolk do on the 1st october 1569?
sent a message to Westmoreland urging him not to rebel
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What did Westmoreland and Northumberland assure the Earl of Sussex at york?
that they had no part to play in the plot to marry Mary to Norfolk
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What happened after this on the 9th october?
Elizabeth summoned the Earls to appear before the council in London with a fuller explanation
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What conclusion did the Earls come to in the First week on November?
that they had to rise over all avenues aa they had failed to change the queens polices
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What prompted the rebellion to start?
Catholic followers urged the rebellion as did Lady Westmoreland- Earls worried by Elizabeths insistence that they go to court
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What did Westmoreland and Northumberland on the 9th Nov?
join forces at westmoreland castle in Brancepeth
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What did Sussex do to try and raise support for the Queen?
sent out a commissions to raise 15,000 foot soliders - many torn between loyalty to the earls and the Queen
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What religious statement did the rebels make on the 14 Nov?
marched to Durham cathedral, celebrated catholic mass and removed evidence of Protestantism
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Who did the rebels enlist support from when they marched south?
Richmondshire and Nevellies tennants at Kirby Moorside
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What was sussex forced to do on the 16th Nov?
inform the privy council of his difficulties raising an army
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How Big was the uprising when the Earls reached Bramham moor?
3800 foot soliders and 1600 horsemen- all territory east of the pennies under control- sussex had less than a 10th of these numbers
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Why did the rebels turn back to Knaresbrough?
to consolidate their strength and partly to await spainish help in north
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What rumors made the earls fear grow?
rumors of fresh royal forces- the rebels feared that the removal of Mary to coventrey into the hands of loyalist shewrsbury
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Where did the rebels retreat to and where did they then capture?
Richmond- Hartlepool hoping a spainsh army might land there
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How was Banard Castle affected?
main body of troops besiges Barnard castle and it surenders to the Earls
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How was the rebellion stopped?
royal army moving up from south reaches river tees (clear they are using a new milita system)- skirmish on both sides resulting to the Earls fleeing to the boarder
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How many rebels did Elizabeth order the execution of and why is the acual figure closer to 450?
600 and because of both bad weather and her officals reluctants
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What happened to the Earl of Westmoreland?
escaped abroad and eventually died in exile , with his lands taken and abolished
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What happened to Northumberland?
betrayed by a Scottish clan and was imprisoned, interrogated and beheaded in York in Aug 1472
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After the rebellion how were harsher polices against Catholics put in place?
1571 parliment approved 39 Articles and passed 3 Acts aimed at catholics
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What happened to Mary Queen of Scots?
held under house arrest until 1587- plots againsit elizabeth did not stop and 3 more plots she was finally executed in 1587
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What were 2 things that caused the rebellion to fail?
1. earls turned back when they heard rumors of a massive force being summonded againsit them and relised it was impossible to free Mary Queen on Scots from Prison
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Why did the rebellions planning lead to its Failure?
they did not have a coherant programme and rebellion was poorly planned, there was confusion over the precise religious aims- no clear aritcles in their demands
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What limited the amount of support they could muster?
heavily dependant on the leadership of the 2 earls so it was hard for them to recruit support from areas outside of their control
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What is an example of the earls failing to fully mobilse their troops?
Northumberland didnt have time to moblise all of his tennats
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How did Support for Elizabeth help the rebellion to fail?
no enthusiasm to replace elizabeth with someone perceived to be a foreigner or to restore the authority of the pope
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Why was loyalty to the Tudor dynasty strong?
tudor proaganda and church teachings always talked about the duty of a subject to obey- (most people wanted peace which quiet loyalty brought)
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Why was the rebellion not as threatening as the pilgrimage of Grace?
smaller and gov and monarchy were in a stronger postion
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What hampered rebels plans?
plans made to move Mary futher away from the base of support of rebels into areas controlled by crown
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Who had elizabeth introduced in the north and what did they do?
her own men to help control and remain loyal
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What government officials were put in the North?
Lord Scrope contained rebellion and held key towns of pontefract, Berwick and york- introduction of new milita system made it easier to assemble troops in times of trouble
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What areas did the Earls fail to get support from?
Chesire and Lancashire
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What did the pope not do until after the rebellion had ended?
issue the papal bull of excommunication- by this time it was too late to call on roman catholics throughout Europe to support rebellion
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Why were any suggestions of Spanish support false?
Phillip II was no enthusiatic about putting Mary on the throne because of her connection with france
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Why was religion no longer a sufficient motive to support rebellion?
fears of reformation were long since over and rebellion failed to get support from leading catholic nobility
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Card 2


Who did she appoint as her personal secretary?


William cecil

Card 3


What were the causes of the rebellion?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who was the greatest danger to elizabeth and why?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When did the problem become serious?


Preview of the front of card 5
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