The nervous system

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What are the two nervous systems?
The CNS and Peripheral Nervous System.
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What is the CNS composed of?
The brain and spinal cord
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What is the peripheral system composed of?
The somatic and autonomic divisions
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What does the autonomic division do?
Regulates internal environment. Carries info from cns to organs, blood vessells and glands.
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What does the somatic division do?
Carries information to the CNS from the senses and CNS to skeletal muscles
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What does the autonomic division branch off into?
The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
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Outline the nerves in the somatic nervous system.
Sensory neurons, motor neurons and interneurons
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What does the sympathetic system do?
Arouses the body.
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What does the parasympathetic system do?
Calms body after arousal.
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Outline the processes of nerves in the nervous system.
Dendrites - cell body - axon - nerves - myelin sheath.
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What is happening at resting potential?
At resting potential, there are a higher concentration of negative ions that exist inside the cell membrane.
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What is polarisation?
When a neuron is at rest.
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What happens when an incoming message is strong enough?
The electrical charge is changed.
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What do these incoming messages do?
Cause graded potentials - when combined, may exceed minimum threshold of excitation, which makes the neuron fire.
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What is the refractory period?
When firing will only occur if the incoming message is stronger than usual.
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Outline the first stage of an neural impulse
Sodium channels open, sodium enters the cell.
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Outline the second stage.
Potassium channels open, potassium begins to leave cell.
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Outline the third stage
Sodium channels close.
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Outline the fourth stage.
Potassium leaves the cell.
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Outline the fifth stage.
Potassium channels close.
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Outline the final stage.
Excess potassium diffuses away.
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What is acetylcholine?
Acetylcholine is involved in arousal, attention, memory, movement and muscle contraction. Link between alzheimers and a loss of acetylcholine.
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What is serotonin?
Neurotransmitter involved in many functions such as sleep, memory, mood, appetite and many other processes. Too little = OCD, depression etc.
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What is an endorphin?
An endorphin has a structure very similar to opoids, opium, morphone, heroin. Allows hibernation.
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What is glutamate?
Most common neurotransmitter - MND associated with excessive glutamate production
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What is GABA?
Regulates neuronal excitability throughout nervous system. Too little GABA causes anxiety disorders.
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What is norepinephrine?
Another term for noradrenaline. Stress depletes adrenaline, exercise increases it.
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What is dopamine?
Associated with pleasure and reward centres in the brain. Drugs block excess in frontal lobes linked to SZ. Too little in motor areas shows a link to parkinson's.
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What is the spinal cord composed of?
It is composed of long, complex nerves that connect your brain to the rest of your body.
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Outline the spinal cords function.
The function of the spinal cord in to relay information about what is going on inside and outsied your body to and from your brain.
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What is white matter composed of?
Consists of glial cells and myelinated axons which transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another.
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What is grey matter composed of?
Consists of numerous cell bodies and a few myelinated axons. It is involved in muscle control, sensory perception and self control.
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What are the main areas of the brain?
The hindbrain, the midbrain and the forebrain.
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How is the brainstem formed?
It is formed by the spinal cord entering the brain, causing it to enlarge and form the brainstem.
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Outline the function (s) of the medulla
Controls breathing and heart rate, salivation, vomiting - point at which nerves from left part of the body corss to the right side of the brain and vice versa.
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What does the Pons do?
The pons is located above the medulla. It connects the top of the brain to the cerebellum. Chemicals produced in the pons help maintain our sleep/wake cycle.
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What is the function of the cerebellum and how is it structured?
It is divided into two hemisphere and handles reflexes - especially balance and coordinates the body's actions.
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What is the function of the midbrain?
To recieve and send messages.
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What do the inferior and superior colliculi do?
Inferior: Auditory processing. Superior: Visual processing.
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How is the forebrain structured?
It is composed of the thalamus, the hypothalamus and the cerebral cortex.
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What does the thalamus do?
Transfers incoming messages from sense receptors.
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What is the limbic system for?
It is critical for forming memories, experiences, pleasure, and motivational and emotional activities.
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What is the cerebral cortex?
The outer covering of the brain.
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What is the occipital lobe responsible for?
Sense of sight - lesions can cause hallucinations.
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What is the temporal lobe responsible for?
Sense of smell, sound, and processing complicated stimuli.
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What is the parietal lobe responsible for?
Intergrating sensory information.
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What is the frontal lobe responsible for?
Conscious thought.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the CNS composed of?

Back

The brain and spinal cord

Card 3

Front

What is the peripheral system composed of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the autonomic division do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the somatic division do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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