The nature of memory: Capacity and encoding.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 22-02-14 17:21
How is the capacity of short-term memory assessed, and when and who created it?
By using digit span created in the 19th century by Joesph Jacobs.
1 of 17
What did Joesph Jacbobs find when he tested his digit span?
9.3 numbers were remembered and 7.3 letters were remembered.
2 of 17
Why are numbers easier to remember?
Because there are only 9 letters, there are 26 letters.
3 of 17
Evaluate Joesph Jacobs study.
Recall of numbers increased steadily with age: 8 year olds remembered 6.6, 19 year olds 8.6. This might be because of increased brain capacity and/or strategies to improve memory.
4 of 17
What did George Millar find?
The span of short-term memory is 7+-2. He tested with dots, musical notes, digits, letters and words and found people can recall 5 words as easily as 5 letters if they chunk.
5 of 17
What did Simon find?
The size of the chunk affects how many you can remember, and people couldn't remember 8 word phrases as easily as 1 syllable.
6 of 17
What study can be used to evaluate Simon's study?
Cowan's.
7 of 17
What did Cowan find?
Short-term memory can hold about 4 chunks.
8 of 17
What did Vogel et al. find?
Visual information capacity was about 4 chunks.
9 of 17
What did Baddeley find?
If the initial letters of a postcode made up something meaningful it made it easier to remember, and numbers were best remembered if they were placed between the city name and random letters.
10 of 17
What did Baddeley study in 1966 and how did he do this?
He tested the effect of acoustic and semantic information on short-term and long-term memory. He gave participants words that were acoustically similar or dissimilar and words that were semantically similar or dissimilar.
11 of 17
What did Baddeley find after his study in 1966?
Short-term memory worked better with semantic words whereas long-term memory worked with acoustic words.
12 of 17
Evaluate Baddeley's study in 1966.
Short-term memory generally relies on acoustic coding.
13 of 17
What did Brandimote et al. find?
Visual codes are also used in short-term memory because if participants were given visual tasks and were prevented from doing verbal rehearsal they couldn't turn them into verbal code so they were lost.
14 of 17
What did Wikens et al. find?
Short-term memory sometimes uses semantic coding.
15 of 17
What did Frost find?
Long-term memory is not exclusively semantic and it is related to visual coding.
16 of 17
What did Nelson and Rothbart find?
Evidence of acoustic encoding in long-term memory.
17 of 17

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Joesph Jacbobs find when he tested his digit span?

Back

9.3 numbers were remembered and 7.3 letters were remembered.

Card 3

Front

Why are numbers easier to remember?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Evaluate Joesph Jacobs study.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did George Millar find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Memory resources »