The multi-store model

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Who designed the multi-store model of memory?
Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968
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Encoding
Learning-converting information into a memory trace
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Storage
Maintaining memory traces over time
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Retrieval
Locating and pulling the memory out of the store
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How information enters the sensory memory
Incoming stimuli / information in from the senses
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Encoding in the sensory memory
Any sense mode (visual, acoustic, taste, smell touch, also semantic)
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Capacity of the sensory memory
Very limited
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Duration of the sensory memory
Brief, 1/2 seconds
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How information can be moved from the sensory memory to the short term memory
If given attention / recording process
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Explanation for forgetting in the sensory memory
Decay, fading away, if given attention will get passed to the short term memory
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Encoding in the short term memory
Mostly acoustic
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Capacity of the short term memory
Limited, 5-9 items (7+or-2)
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Duration of the short term memory
30 seconds
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How information can be passed from the short term memory to the long term memory
Rehearsal transfer / rehearsal loop
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Explanation for forgetting in the short term memory
Decay and displacement-items are pushed out of the short term memory to make room for incoming new ones
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How information can be passed from the long term memory to the short term memory
Retrieval from the long term memory
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Encoding in the long term memory
Mostly semantic
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Capacity of the long term memory
Unlimited
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Duration of the long term memory
Lifetime
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Explanation of forgetting in the long term memory
Interference and retrieval failure-no retrieval cues/long term memory cannot be accessed, memory traces are disrupted or obscured by other information
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The three hypothesises
1) STM and LTM are separate stores. 2) Simple rehearsal is necessary to pass information from STM to LTM. (Without-displaced and forgotten when capacity is reached) 3) STM and LTM are unitary stores (no subdivisions eg:for visual/verbal information)
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Visual encoding
Creating a memory trace in the form of an image, eg: picturing a house
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Acoustic encoding
Creating a memory trace in the form of a sound, eg: thinking about how the word 'house' sounds, thinking about words that rhyme with it
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Semantic encoding
Creating a memory trace in a form based on its meaning, eg: forming an association with the word 'house', thinking about its meaning
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Evidence on encoding in the STM- procedure
Baddeley 1966): participants in 4 groups, heard list of words 1) acoustically similar words 2) acoustically different words 3) semantically similar words 4) semantically different words, had to recall them in correct order.
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Evidence on encoding in the STM - findings
STM: Acoustically similar: 55% accuracy, different: 75% accuracy- order difficult when they sound similar. Similarity of meaning had slight detrimental (negative) effect. STM: acoustic, relies on sound of words rather than meaning.
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Evidence on encoding in the LTM
Baddeley (1966): asked to recall list of 10 words, and given interference task to prevent rehearsal. After 20 minutes delay: made more mistakes when words were semantically similar.
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Card 2

Front

Encoding

Back

Learning-converting information into a memory trace

Card 3

Front

Storage

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Retrieval

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How information enters the sensory memory

Back

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