The Marian Settlement

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What are the topics of the Marian Settlement?
How did Mary aim to restore Catholicism, First Statute of Repeal, attempts to restore medieval heresy laws and revive Six Articles, Second Statute of Repeal, limitations of Catholicism, Pole's reforms, Burnings and how successful
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What did Mary believe that her accession in the face of coup d'etat was?
Divinely ordained, chosen to defeat Protestantism and thus save England
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What did Mary assert regarding all anti-Catholic laws passed during the reigns of her father and brother?
That they were invalid
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Why did Mary have no alternative but to get Parliament to reverse the religious laws?
Due to the fact that statute law had become so influential
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What was the implication of Mary using Parliament to repeal the laws?
Admitted the jurisdiction of statute laws in matters relating to religion
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Of 2000 clergy, roughly what percentage were deprived of their livings under Mary?
25%
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Of those deprived of their living, were did most live?
South East
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What percentage of clergy in the North lost their livings?
Only 10%
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How many clergy in London were deprived of their livings?
150
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How many clergy in Norwich were deprived of their livings?
243 deprived
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When was the First Statute of Repeal passed?
1553
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What was the aim of the First Statute of Repeal?
Return Church of England to state it was in during Henry VIII's final yeasr
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What does the approach taken through the First Statute of Repeals show?
Demonstrates the essentially Catholic nature of religion under Henry and shows Mary was prepared to act cautiously in implementing her aims
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When did Parliament meet, immediately beginning dismantling the Protestant Reformation?
October 1553
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What did the First Statute of Repeal do?
Reversed all religious legislation of Edward's reign and left Church of England with doctrine governed by the 1539 Act of Six Articles
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In 1553 was there a move to restore papal supremacy or the medieval heresy laws?
Noq
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When was the first attempt made to restore medieval heresy laws?
Spring of 1554
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Who made the first attempt to restore the medieval heresy laws?
Gardiner
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Why did Gardiner make the first attempt to revive the medieval heresy laws?
As he had offended Mary in protests against Spanish marriage and wanted to gain favour
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Was Gardiner's attempt to restore medieval heresy laws successful?
No
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Did Mary experience any difficulty in the passage of Act of Six Articles?
No
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What aided the support shown by Parliament for the passage of the Act of Six Articles?
Bishops Hooper and Ridley as well as Archbishop Cranmer had been arrested before the session;the House of Lords were quieter than usual
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What does the passage of the First Statute of Repeals and of the Act of Six Articles show?
Parliament was at the least prepared to accept that religious policy was to be led by the preferences of the monarch of the day
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Did Mary have the support of Parliament and her advisers in the early years of her reign?
Yes
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When was the Second Act of Repeal passed?
1555
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What did Second Act of Repeal do?
Cotinued reintroduction of Catholicism and repealed all religious legislation passed in Henry's reign after 1529
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What did the Second Act of Repeal restore?
Papal headship
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When were the bishops instructed to enforce the First Statute of Repeal?
In March 1554
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In March 1554 whjat did the bishops specifically have to do?
Restore Mass in Latin and married clergy were to give up wives and families or lose livings
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What was the next step in the Marian settlement after the enforcement of the First Statute of Repeals?
Arrival of Cardinal Pole
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Who was Cardinal Pole?
Papal legate with the task of restoring English Church to Rome
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When did Cardinal Pole arrive in England?
November 1554
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What did Cardinal Pole do on his arrival in England?
Pronounced a solemn absolution for England and prepared ground for restoration of papal authority over English Church
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What did the monarch cease to be as a result of the Second Statute of Repeal?
Monarch ceased to be Supreme Head of the Church and the headship of the papacy was restorwed
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As a consequence of the Second Act of Repeal what was revived?
Medieval heresy laws
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What were the limitations to the restoration of Catholicism due to?
Role of those in parliament, dependence on nobility and gentry opinion and change in view of Rome
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Why did Mary achieve support in Parliament for religious policy?
Primarily as did not threaten the position of the gentry and nobility
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What was Mary obliged to accept as the price for the return to Catholicsm?
Sacrifice the restoration of monasteries as laymen would oppose any move to Crown
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How did Mary compromise over plans to restore the monasteries?
Only restored the monastic lands held by the Crown
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What was the value of the monastic land held by the Crown that Mary used to refound monasteries?
£60,000 per year
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After 1554 it is not possible to speak of papal supremacy in England - why?
English monarch and parliament continued to exercise great control over Church
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Instead of papal supremacy, what can the Pope's role after 1554 in Mary's reign be described as?
Speak of papal headship.
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Pope's leadership was spiritual but was distant - would the interference of before 1529 be tolerated?
No
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In 1555 Cardinal Pole was stripped of position of legate and summoned to Rome on cahrges of heresy. What did Mary do?
Refused to allow new legate entrance to England and argued that Pole, as an Englishman, could not be forced to charges in Rome
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Mary supported Pole - what shows this?
He remained the Archbishop of Canterbury until his death in 1558
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Did the English Counter-Reformation return England to the same religious position as in 1529 and if not, why?
No as the influence of monarch and laity in religion would not be halted
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At what level was lay control exercised on the church?
Nationally and locally
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What did the success of the Marian settlement depend on to a great extent?
Fact was backed by the nobility and gentry in Parliament
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When did Cardinal Pole address both Houses of Parliament?
28th November 1554
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What is Pole reported as saying to Parliament on 28th November 1554?
"The Church of Rome might have recovered her jurisdiction by force... However, she was willing to waive this advantage, and apply to none but friendly expedients"
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What is the history of Marian settlement overwhelmingly dominated by?
Burnings
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How was the restitution of Catholicism achieved?
Not only through fear but also through education modelled on that of the continent
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Pole appointed a team of Catholic bishops to visit parishes in their diocesse to supervise priests. What did Pope to achieve in reforms
Revitalise education of clergy by setting up a seminary in every diocese
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Why was a seminary only set up in diocese of York under Pole's reforms?
Considerable funds would have been required to set up system across whole country
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Had Pole's attempts to restore Church finances succeeded by the time of his death in 1558?
nO
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What was the result of the failure of Pole's education reforms?
Majority of clergy remained poorly education
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What might account for reason very few clergy objected to Elizabethan settlement after 1559?
Did not have the same zeal as Mary's bishops and remained poorly educated
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What are the traditional views of Mary's reign dominated by?
'Protestant' perspective from John Foxe's 'Book of Martyrs' (1563)
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What is the traditional historians' view of Marian Settlement?
Aberration in between 1529-Elizabethan settlement march to Protestantism
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What do Elton and Dickens claim about success of Protestantism?
Was already so established it is impossible for Catholicism to be restored
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Why is it important not to exaggerate the success of Mary's religious policy?
She reigned for only 5 years and died without a Catholic heir
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What hampered Pole's reforms, leaving them only partially implemented?
Lack of finances to restore churches and provide education for clergy
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Although Catholicism could have been consolidated if Mary lived longer, what must be said?
Policy of persecution coupled with unpopular marriage ensure Catholicism associated with intolerance and considered alien
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What must be remembered about any successes of the Marian Settlement?
Shortlived
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What three factors preventing success of religious policy?
Deaths of Mary and Cardinal Pole in November 1558, Pope Paul IV's withdrawal of legatine commission from Pole, counter-productive nature of burning heretics
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Why did withdrawal of legatine commission from Pole impact upon his actions?
Made it more difficult for him to implement his policies
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David Loades shows the counter productive nature of burning heretics
"quite suddenly what had appeared to be a discredited...movement had become a cause that brave men would die for and testify to in the face of death"
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How many monks and nuns were produced by Mary's attempts to re-found monasteries by 1557?
100 monks and nuns in six houses
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Did Mary have much the same clergy as those who had servued under Edward VI?
Yes
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Many of Mary and Pole's approaches, though failed to implement them, were similar to the reforms that were later established by what?
the Council of Trent
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Recruitment to the clergy at this time was the strongest in how many years?
30 years
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What is there evidence from parishes?
Considerable and continuing support for traditional services and celebrations
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How many lowerclergy were deprived of livings?
Only 800
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What was the reason for the deprivation of livings of most of the lower clergy who lost them?
Because they were married men not because opposed religious change - Haigh sees this as a success
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What do the revisionist historians Duffy and Haigh argue?
Protestantism had loose hold on population outside south east
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What can be seen to show idea that there was limited genuine adherance to Protestant ideas?
Response of Edwardian bishops to Marian settlement
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How many of Edward's bishops had been deprived of livings by 1554 as a result of refusing to accept restoration of Catholicism?
Only seven
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What can the response of the Edwardian Bishops be compared to?
The response of Marian bishops to the Elizabethan Settlement
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How many of the Marian Bishops refused to take the Oath of Supremacy in Elizabeth's church settlement?
All but one
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Mary believe that her accession in the face of coup d'etat was?

Back

Divinely ordained, chosen to defeat Protestantism and thus save England

Card 3

Front

What did Mary assert regarding all anti-Catholic laws passed during the reigns of her father and brother?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did Mary have no alternative but to get Parliament to reverse the religious laws?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the implication of Mary using Parliament to repeal the laws?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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