The Liberal Reforms

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  • Created by: Evie
  • Created on: 19-05-14 22:39
At the turn of the century people’s attitudes towards poverty changed, how?
They realised it wasn’t the fault of the individual
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Name of Charles Booth’s book?
‘Life and Labour of the People in London’
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What campaign brought a light to social conditions in the late 19th century?
The London Dockers Strike (1889)
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There was a decline in what type of thinking/faith?
Laissez-faire
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What confidence had disappeared?
The confidence of the mid-Victorian policy
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When did economic conditions improve and why?
Late 1880’s due to upturn in trade
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Rates of industrial growth made it easier for?
Unions to develop
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When did British Army begin fighting the Boer settlers in South Africa?
1899
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Boer War made British workforce seem weak to countries like?
Germany and USA
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When did the Liberal Government depart from the orthodox old Liberal stance on taxation?
1892-1895
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The idea of the new Liberal stance on taxation was?
Designed to directly benefit those who needed help the most
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Which key Liberal individuals drove the New Liberal agenda?
Lloyd George and Winston Churchill
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The New Liberal agenda was very attractive to the electorate and therefore?
Was a factor in the landslide General Election victory of 1906
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The fact that there were still links from Old Liberalism to New Liberalism meant?
Traditional supporters of Old Liberalism also supported New Liberalism
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Similarities between Old Liberalism and New Liberalism?
Distinguished between deserving individuals and non deserving, their main goal was to provide members of the working class the opportunity to enjoy a middle class standard of living
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New Liberals argued that?
Taxes should only be increased for those who could afford it
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Many of the Liberal reforms were designed to?
Help people help themselves (not just give them money)
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The Social Reforms were designed to?
Do the opposite of the Gladstonian approach and help people stuck in poverty
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What were Gladstone’s ideas?
Taxes should be as low as possible and people should keep as much of their money as possible to look after themselves
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Free trade brought in by Gladstone when and benefitted who?
1865, benefitted middle class manufacturers
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Some Old Liberals argued that the state’s role should be?
“To allow people the greatest amount of freedom in their lives as they thought best”
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New Liberals did not want to appear too radical, why?
Didn’t want to lose support of traditional liberals or lose votes to people who thought they were socialists
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Workmen’s Compensation Act?
1906 – Act made it easier for workers who got injured or ill due to work, to get a lump sum in compensation
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Labour Exchanges Act?
1909 – Helped those who were out of work get a job and not slip into poverty
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National Insurance Act (part 1)?
1911 – Made sure that if the chief earner in a family got ill, the rest of the family would not suffer as they’d still get paid
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National Insurance Act (part 2)?
1912 – Same as before, but now workers and employers and government all put in the same amount of money
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Miners’ Minimum Wage Act?
1912 – Made sure that miners did not go into poverty with a job that paid too little
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Free School Meals?
1906 – Children would could not afford minimum standard of living got fed at school free, so they were not malnourished (from 1914 158,000 children got it – still wasn’t all of them)
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School Medical Inspections?
1907 – Allowed pupils at schools to find out if they were ill or not (didn’t; have to spend money at hospitals)
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The Children’s Act?
1908 - Made children ‘protected persons’, so they couldn’t go to adult prisons or get abused
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School Clinics?
1912 – Meant that children who could not afford medical treatment could get it at school
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Old Age Pensions Act?
1909 – Gave people over the age of 70 who earned less than £21 a year a pension
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The People’s Budget?
1909 – Taxed the rich for more and put increased duties on petrol, tobacco and alcohol (things the rich were likely to buy)
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Findings of Booth and Rowntree proved?
Falling under the poverty line was not the individuals fault
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What Liberal change did Lloyd George introduce?
Peoples Budget (1909)
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What Liberal change did Winston Churchill introduce?
The Labour Exchanges Act and the Trade Board Act (used by people to help get jobs)
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Liberals may have introduced reform in response to what?
The rise of the Labour Party – they thought they’d take their votes
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How many seats did the Labour patty gain in the 1906 General Election?
30
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What was wrong with the Children’s Act?
Councils had to join it, and they often didn’t
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What was wrong with Pensions Act?
Only applied to British Citizens over 70 – often people did not live that long
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Why did the House of Lords reject the People’s Budget?
It intended to tax the rich, and they did not want that
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The Lords stopping the Liberal doing what they wanted meant that?
It looked like the government was doing little for the country
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Why were new proposals to stop Plural Voting bad for Conservatives?
It would have affected Conservative held constituencies more
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Recent By-Election results informed the Lords to believe that?
If they found a challenge to issue in Commons, the Conservatives could be successful in any resultant election
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Why was Home Rule voted out by the Lords?
Thought it would break up the British Empire
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Why was the Liberal Education Bill voted out by the Lords?
Reduce the Anglican influence
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Lords saw the People’s Budget as?
An attack on property rather than an attack on poverty
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Lords though that if they allowed the People’s Budget it would only?
Lead to more reforms where the rich are taxed
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The rejection of the People’s Budget raised the question?
Who ran the country? Did the Lords have too much influence?
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The rejection of the People’s Budget (therefore constitutional crisis) had not happened in how long before?
200 Years
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The Lords showed with the People’s Budget that they put?
Political gain over society’s morals
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What did the Parliament Act of 1911 aim to do?
Reduce the power of the Lords by removing their veto and also reduce the Conservatives power further by introducing a Liberal majority in the House of Lords
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What did the Parliament Act do?
Let Lords dealt bill by two year and a bill could now only be rejected 3 times before it became law
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The Election of January 1910 proved that the Liberals had to rely on?
Irish Nationalist and Labour
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What did Irish Nationalists demand for their support?
Home Rule
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What did Labour demand for their support?
Favourable trade union legislation
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Second Election, December 1910, proved what?
A similar result to the first, Liberals now had 272 seats and so did the Conservatives
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Although the Parliament Act of 1911 worked, what didn’t?
Conservatives still held the built-in majority in the lords (so still held some influence)
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Example of a bill still delayed after the Parliament Act?
Third Home Rule Bill
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The two General Elections in 1910 was caused by?
The Constitutional Crisis
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Which two Liberals used their political skill to navigate their way through the Constitutional Crisis?
Lloyd George and Asquith
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The House of Lords offered for a Liberal focused attack, meaning?
The Party was brought together after splits in Home Rule
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name of Charles Booth’s book?

Back

‘Life and Labour of the People in London’

Card 3

Front

What campaign brought a light to social conditions in the late 19th century?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

There was a decline in what type of thinking/faith?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What confidence had disappeared?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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